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Arts and Humanities
Session 4 - Literacy Development & Orthography Focus Points
Terms in this set (11)
1. To prepare themselves to work effectively with bilingual learners, teachers must understand which five factors related to bilingual learners?
- Literacy development
- Significance of being bilingual, biliterate, and bi cultural
- Interaction between languages in a bilingual learner
- Knowledge needed to read and write
- Factors affecting literacy development
2. Why might bilingual learners not be exposed to the full range of literacy experiences in either language?
+ primary discourse - communication among intimates who share a great deal of knowledge such as family, friends, and neighbors
+ secondary discourse - in institutions such as, schools, stores, workplaces, government offices, churches and businesses
For some bilingual learners, these two discourses are also distinguished by language. The native language often is used only in primary discourses, and secondary discourses occur mostly in the second language.
Consequently, bilingual students may not be exposed to the full range of literacy experiences in either language not have the benefits of smooth transitions from familiar to school literacy given that the discourse as well as the languages may be different.
3. According the Brisk & Harrington, how many times are literacy skills acquired?
Literacy skills are acquired only once through one language and then applied to the new language. Thus, if students acquire literacy skills in two languages simultaneously, then they may learn literacy skills through either and then apply them to the opposite language.
4. Why might bilingual learners codeswitch when speaking or writing?
Bilingual learners codeswitch when speaking or writing because a word can come more readily in one language, a topic is easier to discuss in one language, there is a desire to express an added meaning by changing language, or the student has no equivalent expression in the other language.
5. How do cultural differences cause difficulties for bilingual learners when attempting to read or write in English?
When the reader and writer come from different cultures, the interpretation of themes may cause difficulties regardless of language proficiency. In order to read or write, students must bring together simultaneously their knowledge of language, literacy, and concepts. Difficulties in one aspect may affect the performance in the others. Knowledge of content can affect the performance in the others. Limited knowledge of language can limit student's writing regardless of depth of prior knowledge.
6. With regard to personal variables affecting literacy, what is the root of Gabriel's inability to decode in Spanish?
Educational background and attitudes shaped Gabriel's Spanish proficiency and unwillingness to improve his Spanish. Lack of formal schooling in Spanish prevented him from learning to read and write in Spanish. He is also confused towards Spanish and refuses to cooperate in his Spanish-language class. The society pressures him to embrace English and not value his Spanish heritage, yet his parents tell him he's Puerto Rican.
7. What are the advantages of an ideographic/logographic writing system?
The advantage of this system is that speakers of different languages can understand the symbols. This means that the speakers can communicate with one another in print even if they do not speak the same language.
8. In what way is a syllabic system impractical?
In syllabic writing system, the sound-symbol correspondence is very strong; each written symbol always represents the same sound. Most languages that use syllabic systems possess between 50 and several hundred symbols.
9. Why is major spelling reform unlikely?
Many of the anomalies of English spelling originate in the history of the language. For example, after the Norman conquest of Britain, French scribes respelled many English words. So the weight of tradition makes major spelling reform unlikely.
10. Provide one example of a grammar feature of instructional text.
Instructional text included the grammar feature of using passive voice (e.g. The Logs are floated downstream.)
11. How do the characteristics of Recounting and Explaining differ from one another?
- Setting the scene (e.g. Last week, we went to the museum)
- Recounting events, usually in chronological order (first, next, then) Usually uses past tense.
- Closing, usually a commentary on the experience (e.g. I enjoyed our visit to the museum because..., or I learned.
- Introduction (e.g. Manufacturing paper involves several steps)
- Sequential description (e.g. first, next...), using present-tense verbs, often in passive voice. Differs from recounting in that it focuses on explaining how or why and uses casual connectives (e.g., as a result)
- Closing. Usually reiterates the opening (e.g. This is how...)
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