Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (86)
is a long muscular tube, which moves food from the mouth to the stomach.
situated at the top of the abdomen, normally holds just over 3 pints (about 1500 ml) of food from a single meal
A valve/circular muscle at the entrance to the stomach from the esophagus allows the food to enter while keeping the acid-laden food from "refluxing" back into the esophagus, causing damage and pain.
is a small round muscle located at the outlet of the stomach and the entrance to the duodenum. It closes the stomach outlet while food is being digested into a smaller, more easily absorbed form. When food is properly digested, it opens and allows the contents of the stomach into the duodenum.
is about 15 to 20 feet long (4.5 to 6 meters) and is where the majority of the absorption of the nutrients from food takes place.
is the first section of the small intestine and is where the food is mixed with bile produced by the liver and with other juices from the pancreas. This is where much of the iron and calcium is absorbed.
is the middle part of the small intestine extending from the duodenum to the ileum; it is responsible for digestion.
The last segment of the intestine, is where the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and other nutrients are absorbed.
a valve that separates the small and large intestines to keep bacteria-laden colon contents from coming back into the small intestine.
where excess fluids are absorbed and a firm stool is formed.
Acute dilatation post surgery
Obstruction of the duodenum by the SMA
Tumor or ulcer disease
Pyloric muscle hypertrophy
Surgical vagotomy (removal of vagus nerve to reduce acid secretion in the stomach)
Types of disorders that may cause Gastric Dilatation
is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting the skin and other organs by hardening connective tissue.
small-bowel obstruction; soft tissue mass
A ____________ is associated with dilatation of the bowel loops PROXIMAL to the site of obstruction. In 6% of cases, the dilated loops are fluid-filled and can be mistaken for a ________ on x-ray examination.
Tubular, Round, Echo-Free Lession
Sonographic Findings of Dilated Loops
Clinical Findings of Dilated Loops
Luminal obstruction (such a fecal impaction)
Small Bowel obstruction Etiology
In _______, the loops are round, with minimal deformity at the interfaces with adjacent loops of distended bowel; valvulae conniventes and peristalsis are seen.
In _______, the dilated bowel has normal to somewhat increased peristaltic activity and less distention.
gastroenteritis and paralytic ileus; peristalsis
The fluid loops are not always associated with obstruction; they can occur with _____ and _____, or in dilated, fluid-filled bowel WITHOUT _______.
volvulus (closed-loop obstruction)
With __________, the involved loop is doubled back on itself abruptly, so that a U-shaped appearance is seen on sagittal scan, and a C-shaped anechoic area with a dense center is seen on transverse scan. The dense center represents medial bowel wall and mesentery.
Rare cause of obstruction, common in children. Defined as the telescoping of a proximal segment of the gastrointestinal tract.
8 to 20%
In a cases of Intussusception, ___ to ___% are idiopathic.
inflammatory bowel disease
Secondary intussusception caused by organic lesions such as
Palpable tender mass
Symptoms of Intussusception
may present as enlarged regal folds with generalized thickening of the mucosal layer of the STOMACH wall
increase or decrease; hyperplastic and inflammatory polyps
Chronic gastritis may cause an ______ in acid production and may also demonstrated ____ and ____.
Mucosa is thinned, considered a precursor of gastric carcinoma
Gastric peptic ulcer
Can occur anywhere in the stomach, most frequently appear along the ANTRAL portion of the lesser curvature
anterior or posterior perforation
Complications of Gastric peptic ulcer can include
results in free intraperitoneal air and often subsequent peritonitis, which may appear sonographically as ascites, loculated ascites or dense debris in the peritoneal space
wall thickening, usually caused by marked edema of the submucosa
Sonographic Findings of Gastric peptic ulcer
is regional enteritis, a recurrent granulomatous inflammatory disease that affects the terminal ileum, colon, or both at any level. The reaction involves the entire thickness of the bowel wall. Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, fever, and right lower quadrant pain.
Crohn's disease is an idiopathic inflammation that starts in the _____ and spreads to ____ layers of the bowel wall
Ileum (more common)
Lesser extent the colon, jejunum,
Stomach and duodenal (small percentage)
Crohn's disease affects the
Nonspecific hypoechoic target lesion if the lumen is view transversely
Can appear similar to advanced carcinoma lymphoma, hematoma and tuberculosis.
Classic sonographic features of Crohn's Disease
In the late stage of Crohn's Disease, _______ pattern is found.
Infections of the stomach
presents as a marked thickening of the stomach wall and swelling of the gastric rugae, a condition called phelgmonomous gastritis (acute and severe bacterial infection causing mucosal injury)
Infections of the stomach are caused by
Less common bacterias causing infections of the stomach
About 70% of all cases of infections of the stomach ____ occurs
In cases of ________ bubbles may form in the gastric wall
Swallowing a ________ substance is more common cause of emphysematous gastritis
Hyperplastic polyps (most common)
Vascular tumors (least common)
List the most common to least common benign gastric tumors
is a small, tumor like growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface.
is an outgrowth of tissue from the gastric wall.
Hyperplastic polyps and gastric adenomas are _____ masses arising from the gastric mucosa
Most common tumor of the stomach
Hypoechoic and continuous with muscular layer of stomach
Solid with cystic areas (necrosis)
Sonographic findings of Leiomyoma
Develop by cystic dilatation of gastric glandular tissue and enlarge into the submucosal space
benign tumor that are generally echogenic
Other gastric tumors arise from the submucosal or muscle layer and spare the ___.
_____ muscle tumors may show a typical swirled texture if they are large enough
are embryologic mistakes.
1. Is lined with alimentary tract epithelium
2. Has a well-developed muscular wall
3. Is contiguous with the stomach
Criteria for a duplication cyst are as follows:
pancreas or duodenum; greater curvature
Duplication cysts may come from the ________, occurs more often in women than in men, and is usually found on the _____ of the stomach.
Decreased hematocrit w/hemorrhage
Clinical Symptoms of Duplication Cyst
are movable intraluminal masses of congealed ingested materials that are seen on upper gastrointestinal radiographs.
Trichobezoars—hair balls in young women
Phytobezoars—vegetable matter (e.g., unripe persimmons)
Concretions—inorganic materials (e.g., sand, asphalt, and shellac)
Gastric bezoars are divided into three categories
Common Gastric Carcinoma
Less common Gastric Carcinoma
account for at least 90% to 95% of malignant tumors of the stomach.
Gastric Carcinoma is the ____ leading cause of death; occurs more often in older ____.
pylorus; body; fundus
50% percent of tumors (gastric carcinoma) occur in the ____; 25% occur in the ____; and 25% in the ____ of the stomach.
mucosa; submucosa and musclaris propria
Gastric Carcinoma arises from the ____, invades the ____ and _______.
can occur as a primary tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (3%-8% of stomach tumors).
most common site for primary lymphoma of the GI tract; typically involves the outer part of the lamina propria and the inner part of the submucosa
True or False. Lymphoma appear polypoid
In patients with ____________, a primary tumor occurs as a multifocal lesion in the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach has enlarged and thickened mucosal folds, multiple submucosal nodules, ulceration, and a large extraluminal mass.
leiomyosarcoma gastric sarcoma
The second most common malignant tumor is the ______________(1%-5% of tumors). It occurs in the fifth to sixth decade of life.
globular or irregular
The leiomyosarcoma gastric sarcoma is generally _________; it may become huge, outstripping its blood supply, with central necrosis leading to cystic degeneration and cavitation
small bowel tumors
Leiomyosarcoma: Represents 10% of all primary ______
10% to 30% occur in the
30% to 45% occur in the
35% to 55% occur in the
Most common type of colon cancer; Stems from colon polyps that turn cancerous and individual who develop polyps are at the highest risk of developing colon cancer
Metastatic disease to the stomach is rare.
Tumors are found in the _____ layer, forming circumscribed nodules or plaques.
is the result of luminal obstruction and inflammation, leading to ischemia of the vermiform appendix.
This ischemia may produce necrosis, perforation, and subsequent abscess formation and peritonitis.
Carcinoma of the cecum
Kinking of the organ
Lymphatic hypertrophy resulting from systemic infection
The appendix lumen may become obstructed by
Obstruction results in ____, which can compromise the vascular supply to the appendix. Subsequently, the permeability of the mucosa increases, and bacterial invasion of the wall of the appendix results in infection and inflammation.
appendicular end artery
Increased intraluminal pressure may cause occlusion of the __________. If the condition persists, the appendix may necrose, leading to gangrene, rupture, and subsequent local or generalized peritonitis.
True or False. Periappendiceal abscess or peritonitis does not necessarily mean perforation; the organism may permeate the wall in the absence of perforation to cause these extra-appendiceal complications.
pain and rebound tenderness, which is usually localized over the right lower quadrant (McBurney's sign)
The symptoms of acute appendicitis are
6 to 12
Progression of acute appendicitis to frank perforation is more rapid in the younger child, sometimes occurring within _____ hours.
Mesenteric lymphadenitis in children
Ruptured ectopic pregnancy
Inflammation of Meckel diverticulum
Right ovarian torsion
Differential diagnoses of Acute Appendicitis
are fecaliths or calculi in the appendix. They are seen as intraluminal foci of high-amplitude echoes with acoustic shadowing.
Mucocele of the appendix
designates gross enlargement of the appendix from accumulation of mucoid substance within the lumen.
is a pouchlike herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ that occurs in the stomach, the small intestine, or, most commonly, the colon.
is located on the antimesenteric border of the ileum, approximately 2 feet from the ileocecal valve. In adults may present with intestinal obstruction, rectal bleeding, or diverticular inflammation.
False. Acute appendicitis and acute Meckel's diverticulitis may not be distinguished clinically.
True or False. Acute appendicitis and acute Meckel's diverticulitis can be distinguished clinically.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Ch. 13 GI Tract Patho
Abdominal and Gastrointestinal Pathology
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
OB/GYN US Exam Review
Ch. 8- Retroperitoneum (Edelman)
Retroperitoneal and The Peritoneal Cavit…
The Vascular System