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Schizophrenia Therapeutics (Dr. Salako)
Terms in this set (50)
Schizophrenia is more prominent in men or women?
What is generally the age onset for schizophrenia?
Late adolescents to early adulthood
T/F: Schizophrenia is associated with a lower socioeconomic status
True (Downward drift)
T/F: It is believed there is a high genetic component to schizophrenia?
The etiology of schizophrenia is _____.
Per DSM-V, two or more of the following are required for a diagnosis of schizophrenia:
- Disorganized speech
- Disorganized or catatonic behavior
- Negative symptoms
How long must the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia be present for diagnosis?
> 6 months
For a diagnosis of schizophrenia you must be able to exclude:
- Schizoaffective disorder
- Mood disorders
- Medical disorders
- Substance use
Examples of positive symptoms:
- Disorganized speech
What is a delusion?
False beliefs that are firmly and consistently held despite disconfirming evidence, culture or logic
What other individuals may experience delusions?
Individuals with mania or depression
Delusions of persecution
Belief that one is a target of others' mistreatment, evil plots, and/or murderous intent
Delusions of reference
Belief that all happenings revolve around oneself and/or one is always the center of attention
Belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast or transmitted to others
Belief that one's thoughts are being removed from one's mind
What are hallucinations?
Sensory experiences in the absence of any stimulation from the environment
What are the most common type of hallucinations in schizophrenia?
What are some examples of negative symptoms?
- Social withdrawal
- Decreased facial expression (blunted)
What are some examples of cognitive symptoms?
- Poor concentration
- Memory disturbances
- Odd language
- Impaired attention
Two standardized rating scales for schizophrenia?
- Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)
- Scales for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)
T/F: Pharmacological agents for schizophrenia will cure the disease?
False; they only work to reduce symptoms
The first schizophrenic psychotic event is usually triggered by _____.
Some stressful event
T/F: Negative symptoms are the most prominent and noticeable in schizophrenia.
False; often times negative symptoms go unnoticed.
A lot of times in schizophrenia there will be a drop in _____.
IQ (by about 30 points)
For the 1st episode of a psychotic event what pharmacologic treatment is recommended by the treatment guidelines?
A trial of a second generation antipsychotic (SGA)
_____ is reserved for the treatment of refractory patients.
T/F: Psychosocial treatment is not often effective as a sole treatment.
Monotherapy or poly therapy is preferred in pharmacologic treatment?
Which drugs are used for acute agitation?
If there is no improvement of symptoms after 3-4 weeks of a therapeutic dose, what should you do?
Switch to a different agent
How long is schizophrenia treatment continued?
From about 12 months to lifetime
Which symptoms usually improve first?
Which symptoms improve around 2-3 weeks of treatment?
- Attention span
- Positive symptoms
Which symptoms improve around 6-8 weeks of treatment?
- Delusions (non fixed)
- Associative disturbances
What side effects are associated with High Potency antipsychotics?
- More EPS symptoms
- Less sedation
- Less anticholinergic
What side effects are associated with Low Potency antipsychotics?
- Less EPS symptoms
- More sedation
- More anticholinergic
EPS is mostly seen with which generation of antipsychotics?
(Also high dose risperodone)
Involuntary sustained spasm of muscles, notably head and neck
Which agents can be given to help treat EPS dystonias?
- Anticholinergic agents (Cogentin, Benadryl)
Diphenhydramine IM or Benztropine IM or slow IV
Restlessness with anxiety and an inability to remain still
What are treatment options for akathisia?
- Decrease dose or change antipsychotic drug
Occurs within the 1st month after initiation of antipsychotic therapy
- Mask-like faces
- Muscle rigidity
- Shuffling gait
What are some treatment options for pseudoparkinsonism?
- Propranolol (in patients resistant to anticholinergics or amantadine)
Occurs with long term treatment with antipsychotics (IRREVERSIBLE)
What are treatment options of tardive dyskinesia?
- Discontinue antipsychotics
- Switch to clozapine
What are some effects of having increased plasma prolactin levels?
- Increased bone demineralization in post-menopausal women
- Sexual dysfunction
- Weight gain
Blocking alpha-1 receptors causes _____.
Blocking alpha-2 receptors causes ____.
Which 3 antipsychotics cause the most metabolic side effects?
Significant weight gain is defined by the FDA as:
Increase in 7% of weight from baseline.
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