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20 terms

Inheritance Unit

STUDY
PLAY
Genetic
Relating to genes or DNA
Trait
A characteristic
Inheritance
Something passed down genetically from parent to offspring
Heritable Trait
A characteristic that can be passed down genetically.
Meiosis
A process of cell division that produces haploid gametes
Gamete
A haploid sex cell like a sperm cell or egg cell
Diploid
Two complete sets of chromosomes
Haploid
One complete set of chromosomes
Zygote
A diploid cell formed when two haploid gametes unite
Fertilization
When gametes unite to form a zygote
Crossing Over
Exchange of genetic material between two chromosomes in one cell during meiosis
Allele
One letter in a genotype
Independent assortment
Parents each give offspring one of two alleles for a trait
Genotype
The alleles or letters for a trait. Could be heterozygous, homozygous dominant, or homozygous recessive.
Phenotype
The physical result of a trait. Ex. brown eyes, tongue roller, widow's peak.
Dominant
Capital letter. Will show always show that phenotype with one or two letters. Ex. Rr or RR
Recessive
Lowercase letter. It takes two of these to show that phenotype. Ex. rr
Heterozygous
Genotype with one dominant and one recessive allelle. Ex. Rr
Homozygous
Genotype with two dominant or two recessive alleles. Ex. RR or rr
Punnet Square
Used to show a cross between two parents and predict their offspring's traits.