biology vocabulary

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chromosome
at the beginning of cell division, DNA and proteins associated with the DNA, coil into this structure
histone
balls of protein that the DNA wraps around
chromatid
the 2 exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome
centromere
the 2 chromatids of a chromosome are attatched at this point
haploid
when a cell contains only one set of chromosomes, it is said to be this
sex chromosome
a chromosome that contains genes that will determine the sex of an individual
autosome
a chromosome that is not directly involved in the determination of the sex of an individual
homologous chromosome
chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
karyotype
a photo of the chromosomes in a dividing cell
diploid
when a cell contains two sets of chromosomes,it is said to be this
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in bacteria
mitosis
the process during which the nucleus of a cell is dividing into 2 nuclei
meiosis
process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half
gamete
an organisms reproductive cells, such as sperm and egg cells
interphase
the time between disvisions of a cell
prophase
the first phase of cell division
spindle fiber
cell structures made of individual microtubule fibers that move chromosomes during cell division
metaphase
the second phase of cell division in which chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
anaphase
the third phase of cell division in which the chromosomes seperate at the centromere
telophase
the fourth phase of cell division in which the chromosomes which the opposite poles of the cell
synapsis
a pairing of homologous chromosomes that occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis
tetrad
a pair of homologous chromosomes made of 4 chromatids
crossing-over
portions of chromatids may break off and attach to adjacent chromatids
spermatogenesis
the production of sperm cells
oogenesis
the process of producing one egg
polar body
3 small products of oogenesis that degenerates
sexual reproduction
production of offspring through meiosis and the union divides
cell plate
vesicles from golgi join together at the midline in plant cells to complete cytokinesis
cytokenesis
the process during cell divisionin which the cytoplasm divides
asexual reproduction
production of offspring from one parent