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Terms in this set (87)
Psychology is the scientific study of:
behavior and mental processes.
The importance of inherited behavioral traits was most clearly highlighted by:
Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with using introspection to search for the mind's _____ elements.
Dr. Prima has been hired to assess job satisfaction and worker productivity. Dr. Prima is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.
Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with the discovery of:
the elements of mind
Studies examining certain traits are helping to clarify the nature-nurture debate. For example, because _____ have the same genes, researchers often include them in studies that examine the relative influence of environment and heredity on these traits.
Professor Chen believes that psychology should only involve studying observable behavior and concepts such as consciousness and mental processes are not concepts that can be the subject of scientific research, thus should not be studies in psychology. Professor Chen's views are most closely aligned to:
Researchers today can use technology such as fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers use the introspection technique with their subjects while obtaining the scans, which is similar to the methodology used by the early psychologist _____
You're having trouble coping with stressful life events, so you begin seeing a therapist. The therapist does not focus on your childhood experiences or on any learned behaviors, but rather she emphasizes the importance of your need for love and acceptance. Her approach is best described as _____.
Your psychology professor explains that his research interest involves using fMRI to investigate which areas of the brain are involved in processing new memories when one is learning a new language. Your professor's research is in the area called:
Your professor argues that children's innate concept of justice enables them to make distinctions between fair and unfair rules. This argument is most consistent with the views of the ancient philosopher _____.
watson is to a Behaviorism rogers is as:
_____ is an error in thinking that illustrates why the scientific approach is more reliable than intuition and common sense when trying to explain psychological phenomena.
Common sense tends to reflect biases and other errors in thinking. For this reason, common sense is not as useful as the scientific approach in helping one make accurate _____.
use integrated sets of principles to predict behaviors or events.
A study of an individual may mislead us if the individual is atypical. This expresses a limitation of the _____ method of descriptive research.
Researchers control factors (e.g., age, attitudes) that might influence a dependent variable by means of:
The American Psychological Association's guidelines for research animals requires the comfort, health, and _____ treatment of lab animals.
Seeing faces in the clouds, perceiving that answers on a multiple choice exam have an order or that hidden messages exist in music are examples of our tendency to perceive _____ which is an error in thinking.
Order in Random Events
When testing those claiming to be able to see auras around people's heads, magician James Randi issued this challenge: "Then if I were to step behind a wall barely taller than I am, you could determine my location from the aura visible above my head, right?" This challenge shows Randi's _____ approach.
A(n) _____ is a statement of the procedure used to define a research variable in a study.
What is a main difference between the survey method and the case study method?
Surveys focus on groups, whereas case studies focus on single individuals.
In an experiment, it is important that independent and dependent variables are given _____, which specify procedures for manipulating the independent variable and measuring the dependent variable.
precise operational definitions
Deception in psychology experiments:
is still allowed when it is not feasible to use alternatives that do not involve deception, and when the potential findings justify its use.
Hindsight bias and ____ illustrate why the scientific approach is more reliable than intuition and common sense when trying to explain psychological phenomena.
The idea that parental behaviors determine a child's sexual orientation may seem plausible to you, while the idea that your future can be predicted on the basis of the positions of the planets at your birth may not. However, both ideas should be tested using a(n) _____ approach to see if either one holds up under scrutiny.
Studies indicate that anxiety may be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain. A chemist at a pharmaceutical company has an idea for a new medication that she thinks may be useful for treating anxiety, because the medication will correct the imbalances. This explanation of why the medication will work is a(n):
Sabrina stated there was a _____ correlation between food intake and weight as the scores tended to rise and fall together.
Unlike a correlational study, the only way to demonstrate _____ is to conduct an experiment.
When psychologists apply laboratory research on aggression to actual violence, they are:
applying theoretical principles of aggressive behavior.
In trying to explain psychological phenomena, people cannot rely solely on their intuition and common sense because they tend to think they know more than they actually do. This error in thinking is referred to as:
The results of Dr. Drake's studies indicated that teen parents tend to develop healthier relationships with male infants than with female infants. However, four subsequent studies by other psychologists failed to confirm these results. After reading these other studies, Dr. Drake suspected that her own studies were flawed. This shows that Dr. Drake possesses _____, which is one of the three main components of the scientific attitude.
"Hungry adults will score higher on a math test than adults who are not hungry." This statement is a(n) _____.
Diego has been diagnosed with dissociative personality disorder (formally called multiple personality disorder). Dr. Sanchez is treating Diego and decides to research Diego's history, interview his friends, family, and examine his social, medical, and academic past. His hope is to eventually publish a paper on Diego's situation and make a presentation to colleagues in the American Psychological Association. Dr. Sanchez hopes his research will shed light on the cause of this disorder. Dr. Sanchez is using the _____ method.
This variable is the experimental factor that is manipulated to see if it affects the outcome.
It is the resulting _____, not the specific findings of an experiment, that help to explain everyday behaviors.
In a survey, stockbrokers are asked to predict whether stock markets will rise or fall over the coming year and to say how confident they are in their predictions. Statistically, it is likely that the stockbrokers will express high confidence in their predictions, but their predictions will not be accurate. This illustrates the error in thinking known as _____.
Studies indicate that bipolar disorders may be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain. A chemist at a pharmaceutical company wants to conduct a research study of a new medication that she thinks will correct the imbalances. Which hypothesis would move this research in a useful direction?
People with bipolar disorders who take the new medication will experience decreased episodes.
Physicist Neils Bohr reportedly said, "Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future." This statement probably reflects Bohr's belief that accurate prediction requires:
Your high school's homecoming queen married the captain of the football team right after graduation, and you have just found out that they are splitting up. Thinking back to your high school days, you have the feeling that you would have predicted this, but you fail to remember that you said to your best friend at the time that you could not imagine the couple ever parting. This illustrates an error in thinking known as _____.
A local school board is setting up a program to prepare children to become scientists. To carry out this program, teachers should encourage _____, skepticism, and humility.
A pharmaceutical company has developed a new medication to treat obsessive compulsive disorder. The company's studies indicate that the medication significantly reduces symptoms in 70 percent of people diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder. However, _____ of these studies is required before these findings can be accepted.
After seeing case information and an autopsy report, physicians may claim that they could have used the case information alone to predict the accurate cause of death. This illustrates an error in thinking known as _____.
Jamie, a smart but lazy student in Dr. Biek's introductory psychology course, was sure she would get an A on the midterm, because Dr. Biek was known for asking questions that required only common sense to answer, not knowledge of specific facts. She was right about the questions, but they were trickier than she expected, and she only earned a C. This scenario illustrates the error in thinking known as:
Layla picked six companies in which to invest money. She discussed her picks with her husband, and he fully supported her choices, so she made the investments. After a year, five of the six companies had gone bankrupt, wiping out Layla's investments. Her husband's response was, "There was no way either of us could have predicted this outcome." He is NOT making an error in thinking known as:
Josh does not doubt anything his teacher tells him but just accepts it all as absolute truth. Josh lacks which aspect of the scientific attitude?
Jorge, a bright but lazy student in Dr. LaDue's introductory psychology course, was sure he would get an A on the midterm, because Dr. LaDue was known for asking questions that required only common sense to answer, not knowledge of specific facts. He was right about the questions, but they were trickier than he expected, and he only earned a B. This scenario illustrates _____.
Studies indicate that obsessive-compulsive disorder may be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain. A chemist at a pharmaceutical company has an idea for a new medication that he thinks may be useful for treating anxiety. He predicts that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder who take the medication will experience decreased symptoms within four months. This prediction is a(n) _____.
The head of an advertising agency predicts that the client's sales will double within six months after the new advertising campaign begins. This prediction is a(n):
During the local evening news program, viewers were asked to send text messages indicating whether they supported or opposed an increase in property taxes. Later in the broadcast, the results were posted: 48 percent of the messages opposed an increase. The news anchor then said, "Forty-eight percent of our viewers think a property tax increase is a bad idea." Quinn accepted this conclusion and did not wonder whether it was justified by the evidence. For example, he failed to think about the fact that 2000 text messages had been received, but the program probably had tens of thousands of viewers. Quinn was NOT demonstrating _____ thinking.
Milton has been having considerable trouble with his short-term memory. His family has noticed a number of mistakes Milton has been making (e.g., leaving doors unlocked, getting lost in the neighborhood, forgetting family members' names). It appears that the _____________- producing neurons are deteriorating.
The process of _____________ occurs when the sending neuron normally reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules.
The all-or-none response of a neuron is similar to:
a gun that either fires or it doesn't.
The work groups that neurons cluster into are known as
Dendrites transmit messages _____ the cell body and axons transmit messages _____ the cell body.
toward; away from
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the _____.
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the _____.
In addition to controlling other endocrine glands, the pituitary also has primary responsibility for regulating _____.
If speed were of the essence, which of the following information processing systems would you choose to make simple decisions for you?
The parasympathetic nervous system conserves energy, while the _____ nervous system arouses and expends energy.
"Neurotransmitter" is to "synaptic gap" as "hormone" is to:
Richard suffers from depression. He most likely has low levels of serotonin and _____ levels of norepinephrine.
Given the proportional amounts of the different types of neurons, which type of neuron would you be LEAST likely to worry about if you lost 100,000 of them?
A friend has asked you to explain how hormones influence our interest in certain behaviors. Which topics would you be LEAST likely to address?
X choice of occupation
After being startled awake in the middle of the night, it turns out that the noise a man heard was the closet rod breaking from the weight of his winter coats. Knowing that, he begins to calm down and his heart stops racing. Clearly his _____ nervous system has now been activated.
A firefighter wakes in the middle of the night to the sound of an alarm. It is likely that her _____ have released epinephrine and norepinephrine.
A neuropsychologist is interested in studying how the approximately 400 trillion synapses of an adult brain are organized into an information-processing system. His research will focus on _____.
Joan was born without functioning ovaries. What do we know?
She may need sex hormone replacement.
Rachel just had dinner at her favorite restaurant and now has a terrible migraine. Rachel may have consumed too much MSG, which causes an oversupply of the neurotransmitter _____.
When comparing the endocrine system and the nervous system in terms of speed, it is clear that the endocrine system is the tortoise and the _____ system is the hare.
A medical equipment company is thinking of expanding by developing lie-detection machines that measure perspiration, cardiovascular, and respiratory changes. Their research should focus on the _____ nervous system.
Everything we do, think, and feel is the result of activity in the body's nervous system. Neurons, the basic units of the brain, are highly specialized nerve cells that communicate through an electrochemical process
When the cell is at rest:
enough positively charged sodium ions are kept outside of the cell to maintain a slightly negative charge inside.
Drugs or chemicals can:
• facilitate the transmission of information from one neuron to another.
• be used to cure a whole variety of clinical disorders by playing a role at the synaptic level.
• inhibit the transmission of information from neuron to another.
How does our mind distinguish between
strong and weak stimuli?
More neurons fire
You're in the library studying for your psych exam
when you notice the love of your life checking you
out. This causes your brain to release dopamine.
After the signal transmission is finished, what
typically happens to the extra dopamine in your
It is reabsorbed by terminal branches
Too little dopamine is associated with which
of the following?
Alcohol has INHIBITORY effects on your brain.
Which neurotransmitter does it primarily cause
to be released?