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The body's defense mechanisms can be organized into one of two major categories of immune mechanisms; these are:

nonspecific(innate) and (adaptive)specific immunity.

The internal environment of the human body is protected by the _____, which is referred to as the first line of defense


The ingestion and destruction of microorganisms or other small particles is called

Phagocytosis(innate immunity)

Lymphocytes that kill many types of tumor cells and cells infected by different kinds of viruses are known as

natural killer cells.

This protein interferes with the ability of viruses to cause disease


Specific immunity, part of the body's third line of defense, is orchestrated by two different classes of a type of white blood cell called the


Because T cells attack pathogens more directly, T cell immune mechanisms are classified as:

cell-mediated immunity

Antibodies are proteins of the family called:


Recognition of antigens by antibodies occurs when:

an antigen's epitopes fit into and bind to an antigen molecule's antigen-binding site

_____ occurs when specific or nonspecific immune mechanisms are put in place by genetic mechanisms during the early stages of human development in the womb.

Acquired immunity

Self tolerance is refered to as what

The ability of our immune system to attack abnormal foreign cells but spare our own

Why is it called innate immunity

Immunity is placed before a persone is exposed to a particular harmful particle or condition. It is already present naturally at birth

Non specific immunity implies what

immune mechanism do not only act on one or two specifc invaders but rather provide a general defense vs nonself particles

Adaptive or specific immunity implies what

Immune mechanism recognize specific threatening agents and then adapt or respond vs these agents only

What is released from cells to trigger or regulate innate and adaptive immune response

Cytokines, they also participate in innate immunity

Which immunity mechanism is faster to respond and why?

Innate due to its natural antibodies are already in place vs the adaptive immunity it has to meet the intruder recognize it and then built antibodies vs it.

Explain the term Species resistance

Basically states that diseases that affect other species wont necessary affect us.

What is the first line of defense in immunity

Mechanical and chemical barriers (skin, and mucosa)

What is the second line of defense in immunity

Innate inflammatory response including phagocytosis

What is the the third line of defense in immunity

Specific immune response(adaptive) and natural killer cells

How does inflammation work in immunity

It isolates the pathogen and stimulates the speedy arrival of large number of immune cells

What are the two types of phagocytes and which is the first to arrive at the scene of inflammation

Neutrophils and Macrophages, Neutrophils are first to arrive at the scene.

How does complement work in immunity

Group of plasma proteins that produce a cascade of chemical reactions that causes lysis of the foreign cell it can be triggered by innate and adaptibe immune mechanisms

What is chemotaxis

chemical attraction of cells to the source of the chemical attractant

Which phagocyte is the most numerous?


The term pavementing refers to

when the neutrophils and other phagocytes adhere to the endothelial lining

What causes pus?

When dead phagocytes pile up at the inflammatory site it forms most of the white substance

What type of phagocyte is in contact with the external enviroment such as the skin and mucous membranes

Dendritic cells(also called stellate or star shape)

How do NK cells recognize abnormal cells?

By using two types of receptors; a killer activitaning receptor and a killer inhibiting receptor.

If the killing inhibtion receptor of the NK binds with the MHC protein what occurs.

The killing process stops

What is a MHC

A protein that helps NK cells to recognize abnormal cells, if the MHC is missing it will attack

In the adaptive immunity what are the two major classes of lymphocytes

Tcells and b cells

What is the fucntion of b cells

They do not attack pathogens but BUILD or produce antibodies to attack the pathogen, they are classified as antibody mediated immunity.

What cells are classified as antibody mediaded immunity

b cells

T cells are considered what type of immunity and why

Cell mediated immunity because they attack pathogens more directly

What is the international system for naming surface marker cells.

CD system (cluster of diffrentiation)

Densest population of lymphocytes occur in...

the bone marrow, thymus, lymph node, and spleen

Activation of lymphocytes require two stimuli which are

specific antigen and activitating chemicals

what are the two stages in B cells development

Pre b cells develop by a few months of age.
Second stage occurs in the lymph nodes or spleen when a naive(virgin) cell binds to a specific antigen

B cells serves as ________ to antibody-secreting plasma cells


NK cells, Epithelial barriers, Phagocytes, complements are part of what immunity and react in how many hours after infection

Innate immunity 0-12 hrs after exposure

B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, Antibodies, and effector T cells are part of what type of immunity and take react at what time interval afte rinfection presents itself.

Adaptive immunity and can take several days to react 1-5 days

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