42 terms

Principles of Democracy (Chapter 1)

Various terms and fill in the blanks
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

What are the four characteristics of a state?
a. Population
b. Territory
c. Sovereignty
d. Government
What are the four theories of the origins of a state?
a. The Force Theory
b. The Evolutionary Theory
c. The Divine Right Theory
d. The Social Contract Theory
What are six purposes of the American system of government?
a. Form a More Perfect Union
b. Establish Justice
c. Ensure Domestic Tranquility
d. Provide for the Common Defense
e. Promote the General Welfare
f. Secure the Blessings of Liberty
Government
The institution through which a society makes and enforces it public policies
Public Policy
All of those things a government decides to do
Legislative Power
The power to make law and to frame public policies
Executive Power
The power to execute, enforce, and administer law
Judicial Power
The power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning and to settle disputes that arise within the society
Constitution
The body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government.
Dictatorship
The ultimate responsibility for the exercise of these powers may be held by a single person or by a small group
Democracy
When the responsibility for the exercise of these powers rests with a majority of the people
State
Can be defined as a body of people, living in a defined territory organized politically, with a government, and with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority
Sovereign
The supreme and absolute power within its own territory and can decide its own foreign and domestic policies
In a democracy what is the sovereign power held by?
The people
Those who rule in a democracy are responsible to who?
The people
Power is gained by what in a democracy?
Voting Election
Sovereign power is held by who in a dictatorship?
Person or small group
Those who rule in a dictatorship are responsible to who?
Nobody
Power is gained how in a dictatorship?
Force
A government in which a single person holds unlimited power
Autocracy
A government in which the executive and legislative branches are separate and coequal
Presidential Government
A government in which power is divided between a central government and other local governments
Federal Government
A government in which a small, usually self-appointed, group has the power to rule
Oligarchy
A government in which all power belongs to a central agency
Unitary Government
An alliance of independent states
Confederation
Structuring a government so that power is shared by a central and several local governments
Division of Powers
A government in which members of the executive branch are also members of the legislative branch and are subject to the legislature's direct control
Parliamentary Government
What are the basic concepts of democracy?
1. A recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person
2. A respect for the equality of all persons
3. A faith in majority rule and an insistence upon minority rights
4. An acceptance of the necessity of compromise
5. An insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom
What is the significance of the term compromise as it relates to problem solving in a democratic society?
Compromise is a the process of blending and adjusting competing views and interests. It is a process, a way of achieving an agreement so it helps by solving that way by reaching an agreement between citizens
What are the four factors underlying the free enterprise system?
1. Private Ownership
2. Individual Initiative
3. Profit
4. Competition
How does the law of supply and demand operate?
It states that when supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop. When supplies became scarcer, prices tend to rise.
What is a mixed economy?
An economy in which private ownership exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion
Why does government matter?
Government is essential to a civilized society and the type of government greatly impacts the lives of the citizens in that society
What are the basic powers of all governments?
1. Legislative Power- power to make laws (Congress)
2. Executive Power- power to enforce or execute laws (President-Chief or Executive)
3. Judicial Power- Power to interpret law and settle disputes
What are the four characteristics of the state?
1. Population (aka people)
2. Territory (aka land)
3. Government (organized politically)
4. Sovereignty (aka no higher power)
What are the four origins of government?
1. Force theory- the strongest in an area dominate and rule over others
2. Evolutionary theory- the head of one dominate family ruled an area, and out of this evolved larger units such as clans, tribes, etc. (Adams, Roosevelts, Bushes, Kennedys)
3. Divine Right theory- God created the state and placed those who rule in power as God's representative Ex. Kings, queens
4. Social Contract- agreement between people to create a state and government to work in the best interest of the "people"
What are the purposes of the U.S. Government?
1. Form a more perfect union (create a better country)
2. Establish justice (equal treatment under the law)
3. Ensure domestic tranquility (keep peace inside the US)
4. Provide for the common defense (protect against enemies both domestic and foreign)
5. Promote the general welfare (do the most "good" for the most people possible)
6. Secure the blessings of liberty (protect and defend rights and freedoms)
Where are the purposes of the US government found?
The preamble (opening statement to the constitution)
What are the 3 ways to classify government?
1. Who participates
- democracy- the "people" rule and have final authority
- dictatorship- one person rules supreme
- autocracy- one person rules supreme
- oligarchy- small elite group rules (most oligarchys are military)
2. geographic distribution of power (where the government is located)
- unitary government- governments authority is located in one place, the capital city usually
- confederate government- an alliance of independent states with a limited central government
- federal government- government power is shared between a strong central government and lower levels (state, local) in a division of powers
3. relationship between the legislative and executive branches
- Presidential government- chief executive is separate and independent of the legislative branch, elected by the "people" (USA)
- Parliamentary government- chief executive is part of the legislative branch, elected from among the legislative branchs members (GB and most of Europe)
What are the basic concepts of democracy?
1. Worth of the individual- everybody has value, the individual matters
2. Equality of all- "all men are created equal"
3. Majority rules, minority rights- minority's views are protected, even if unpopular
4. Necessity of compromise- "give and take"
5. Individual freedom- as much as possible, but not absolute
What does democracy mean?
Political freedom
What is free enterprise?
Capitalism