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verbal communication

takes place when message is spoken, sender and receiver must apply same meaning to spoken words (7% is word spoken)

non verbal communication

body language (70% unspoken), unconscious body movements, gestures, and facial expressions (23% tone of voice conveying message)

active listening

verifies message from sender, received message is sent back to sender worded slightly differently

five C's of communication

Complete, Clear (eye contact enhances clarity, articulate & enunciate, time to process message, message must be heard) Concise, Cohesive, Courteous

body language

expressions that accompany speech, kinesics is study of body language, body language learned first, influenced by primary givers and cultures

personal space

comfortable personal space, handled differently by various cultures, explain invasive procedures

US culture (personal space)

intimate touching 1 1/2 feet apart
personal 1 1/2 to 4 feet
social 4 to 12 feet
public 12 to 15 feet

bias and prejudice barriers

caused by cultural and religious diversity

defense mechanism barriers

regression, denial, repression, projection, sublimation, displacement, compensation, rationalization, undoing,


moving back to a former stage to escape conflict or fear


rejection of or refusal to acknowledge


coping with an overwhelming situation by temporarily forgetting it; temporary amnesia


act of placing ones own feelings on another


redirecting a socially unacceptable impulse into one thats socially acceptable


displacing negative feelings onto something or someone with no significance to the situation


overemphasizing of characteristics to make up for a real or imagined failure or handicap


act of justification usually illogically that one uses to keep from facing the truth of the situation


actions designed to make amends to cancel out inappropriate behavior

maslow's hierarchy of needs

self actualization, esteem, love/belonging, safety, physiological

self actualization

morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts


self esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others


friendship, family, sexual intimacy


security of body, resources, employment, morality, family, health, and property


breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion


body's response to mental and physical change


things or situations that cause stress

sympathetic nervous system

prepares body for fight or flight

parasympathetic nervous system

activated when body returns back to normal


role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, role value

stages of burnout

honeymoon stage, reality stage, dissatisfaction stage, sad state stage

prevention of burnout

develop time management and prioritization techniques, develop outside interests, take steps to a health life style, self evaluation, set realistic goals, obtain written job description

terminal illness

life threatening disease, HIV, AIDS, cancer, ESRD (end stage renal disease)

strongest influence on dying patients

close friends and family

patients rights

refuse to say no to treatment

stages of grief

denial/disbelief, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance


to accept reality of loss, experience pain, adjust to the loss, reinvest in a new reality

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