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Ch. 6 and 7 *FALL EXAM*
Terms in this set (36)
1) French and Indian War/Seven Years' War
B tries to fight traditionally
1) Fort Necessity 1754
2) Braddock defeated at Fort Duquesne
-William Pitt decides to beat French in Canada (not strong position)
-Series of Victories=biggest British in Quebeck
2) Treaty of Paris
-ended 7 yrs war
-French not allowed to be in N America
*B took over their territory
3) Pontiac's Rebellion
didn't treat Indian well
-attack B forts=war
-B changed policies back to be nice
-Pontiac knew they were weak=good time for rebellion
-B used biological warfare
4) Proclamation of 1763
B couldn't settle past left of Apps
-separated the Indians from the British=feel safer/prevent conflict
-B didn't listen to it=more land
*not really inforcable law
*already B colonist on the other side
*America break and don't care about stupid law
tax on imports
7) Stamp Act
legal documents had to have stamp on it=owner
-don't like giving money to gov
-they responded with rebellion
once a year=income tax goes straight to gov
sales tax, goes to gov
9) Sons of Liberty/Daughters of Liberty
lawyers/merchants=very opposed to Stamp Act
-under employed young man=join gangs
-gangs=fight each other
12) Boston Massacre
tension=colonists v. B soldiers
-soliders shot rowdy colonists
13) Tea Act
effort to bail out the bankrupt E India Company by granting that coporation a monopoly in USA
-lower price bc cut middlemen
-hurt American merchants
-tea=cheaper to ordinary consumers
-many saw as Parliaments attempt to trick them into authority
14) Boston Tea Party
50 men disguised themselves as Indians
-3 vessels of Griffin;s Warf
-dumped 90,000 lbs of tea into Boston harbor
15) Coercive/Intolerable Acts
reassert dominance over USA
-called "Intolerable Acts" in USA
-Boston Port Bill=close harbor
-3 others approved
1st Continental Congress/ Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Each colony wanted international congress
Lexington and Concord
-signal for B to come
-B troops marched, ordered militia to disperse
-shot fired (idk who first)=created shootings
-left 8 colonists dead on Lexington
-Concord=people armed=B retreated to Boston
What was the relationship between the American colonies and their mother country before 1763? Why?
mercantilism/ benign neglect
What were the root causes of the French and Indian War?
underlying tension B and F fighting b/w E nations, F and B claimed same land, Indians sided w F and hated B
How does the British victory change the relationship between the colonies and Great Britain?
gave them post war patriotism, showed them how to fight. B had control over. militia v. B soldiers=problem
What different ways do the colonists use to respond to changes in British policy? Which are the most effective and why?
rebellion: boycott, harshly criticize, burned down offices of stamp distributors, rioters, tea party
What are the key elements in the progress towards violent revolution?
Battle of Bunker Hill
Fort Ticonderoga=cannons blow up city, important place for America to hold
-British attacks the hills
-"don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes"
-colonists fend off British the first and second round but then they run out of ammunition the third round so the British take over their position
Second Continental Congress
delegates gathered together at Philadelphia after Lexington and Concord battle
-independence v. reconciliation=best way to protect liberties
-no one openly wanted independence from British
-organize army (George Washington-wore military uniform)
Dec of Independence
Congress accepted it on July 4, 1776
-committee to write it=John Adams, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, THOMAS JEFFERSON
-first part of DOI=Americans were not British anymore
-second part denied Brits authority in America (grievances)
-did not attack monarchy, freedom and equality
-government=consent of the governed
loyalists= Americans who supported British government (king and Parliament)
-1/5 of the population
-areas that profited the most= Southern colonies=traded w/ England more=more loyalist
-also trade/jobs=relied on England=loyalist
-loyalist were not numerous enough to pose a threat to patriots
-British hoped that they would convince the patriots that they were wrong
-patriots=loyal to America and wanted revolution and freedom from England
Battles of Trenton, Princeton
war=game of strategy
-English=trained/lethal army plus Hessian mercenaries
-Washington=less organized and needed some wins under his belt to keep colonists motivated to fight
-disobeyed the "rules" of war in by 1) fighting in the winter 2) surprise attack the Hessians day after a holiday (Christmas)
-went across the icy Delaware River to get to Trenton at dawn=Germans surrendered
-Washington followed it up with a win over the Princeton, New Jersey
Johnny "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne=British general who went from the south
-B plan is a mess=capture Philadelphia
-from Canada to NYC
-tried to cut off NE
-take control Hudson
-brought women and children and fancy stuff
-there were dense woods=hack way through
-American troops see them and attack, lots of soldiers die
-tries to flee back to Canada=ended up getting surrounded at Saratoga
-surrendered army to American general Gates=lost an entire army
-Johnny didn't understand the place/best way to win battle
-victory convinced France to join
B=comf in Philly
-CC in charge of food (had no idea how to run government)
-Washington and his men (lack discipline/training)=starving, freezing, hate British in Philadelphia
-blamed Congress (didn't have enough money to keep army organized/provide food and clothes and stuff-farmers supplied British because they got paid more) and civilians who don't care
-people died not because of fighting but because of hunger, the cold, and disease
-continentals=came from classes than no one cared about=single men /teens /desperate /drafted /substitutes /criminals /landless /unemployed /drifters /indentured servants /slaves /captured soldiers
-supplies finally arrived to Valley Forge in the spring
Cornwallis stationed army on coast of Virginia
-couldn't retreat but assumes that navy could save them
-basically completely surrounded
-Cornwallis wrote Clinton for help
-British army had issues with India/ the West Indies/Florida/French and Spanish were in English Channel about to attack=made it harder to get to Cornwallis
-British navy arrived to save Cornwallis after he surrendered to the rebels
-surrendered his sword
-caused North and Germain to resign
-THE WORLD TURNED UPSIDE DOWN SONG PLAYED
Treaty of Paris, 1783
-Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
-offered settlement to British to weaken French and American relationship=British went for it of course
-British agreed to boundaries at Mississippi River (west/border of Canada)
-got to France to agree as ally, Spain (ally of America and France) controlled Florida and the island in the Mediterranean, Minorca
-NEW NATION ROSE
How does the relationship between Britain and the American colonies change after the creation of the 1st Continental Congress and before the Declaration of Independence?
CC called after major event to talk about something=response to 1) intolerable act
-2)Lexington and Concord
-were trying to mend relationship with B, not even trying to rebel or anything
-just wanted peace with them
-start questioning=monarchy, etc.
What advantages and disadvantages did each side have at the beginning of the conflict?
ADVANTAGE: America was motivated and were passionate about their cause
DISADVANTAGE: American troops/soldiers were not organized/funded/trained
ADVANTAGE: British had essentially all of the power and strength in army and land
DISADVANTAGE: British were cocky and they lived across the sea which made it hard to rule.
What strategy did each side have in order to win the war?
America had motivation and reason to fight whereas the British were just defending so America wanted and had their heart set on a goal which helped them. America's way of fighting was less organized and was more like a militia and guerilla warfare. Then the Continental Army came along and it was made up of people who were not in a great class and there was not a lot of organization there either. Unlike America, the British were very organized and disciplined and had lots of power and funding. British used offense as a defense to protect its claim on the American colonies and Americans continued to bring about riots and fought against the British in every way that they could.
What role does Washington play in the way the war goes?
General George Washington takes a risky move at the Battles of Trenton and Princeton and it pays off. America wins! This helps motivate people to continue fighting for the cause. He is risky and without those two crucial wins, the war may have gone in a complete different direction.
What is the turning point in the war? Are there other key background factors that help change American fortunes?
SARATOGA-convinces French that USA has real chance
-don't want to back USA if they lose
How and why do the British ultimately lose the war?
The official loss is when Cornwallis surrenders his army at Yorktown and so important British officials step down because they think it is OVER. The British could have won by force; they did have the stronger, more powerful army but really they just stopped caring. It wasn't really that they lost but they just lost energy and money and to them, it just wasn't worth it.
How and why did Thomas Jefferson rise to fame in the colonies and soon become the face of the rebellion against the British?
He wrote the Declaration of Independence. He understood exactly what the Americans were fighting for and wrote it down and created a very important document. He created a basis for a real government and essentially wrote up the divorce papers between America and England.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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