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132 terms

Medical Terminology, Chapter 2 Terms, The Human Body in Health and Disease

Medical terminology terms
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airborne transmission
occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze
abdominal cavity
contains primarily the major organs of digestion
abdominopelvic cavity
refers to the abdominal and pelvic cavities as a single unit
adenectomy
the surgical removal of a gland
adenitis
the inflammation of a gland
adenocarcinoma
a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
adenoma
a benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue
adenomalacia
the abnormal softening of a gland
adenosclerosis
the abnormal hardening of a gland
adenosis
any disease condition of a gland
adipose tissue
provides protective padding, insulation, and support
adult stem cells
undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ
anaplasia
a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
anatomic position
describes the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position that includes: standing up straight so that the body is erect and facing forward; holding the arms at the sides with the hands turned with the palms turned toward the front
anatomic reference systems
used to describe the locations of the structural units of the body
anatomy
the study of the structures of the body
anomaly
a deviation from what is regarded as normal
anterior
situated in the front; front or forward part of an organ
aplasia
the defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
atresia
describes the congenital absence of a normal opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
autopsy
a postmortem examination
bloodborne transmission
the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood
body cavities
spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs
body planes
imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used the divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes
caudal
toward the lower part of the body
cell membrane
the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment
cells
the basic structural and functional units of the body
cephalic
toward the head
chromosomes
the genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell
communicable disease
any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects
congenital disorder
an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
connective tissues
support and connect organs and other body tissues
cranial cavity
located within the skull and surrounds and protects the brain
cystic fibrosis
a genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems
cytology
the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell
cytoplasm
the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
dense connective tissues
form the joints and framework of the body
development disorder
can result in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or the presence of an extra toe
distal
situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
dominant gene
when inherited from either parent, the offspring will inherit that genetic condition or characteristic
dorsal
refers to the back of the organ or body
dorsal cavity
located along the back of the body and head and contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions (divided into two portions: cranial, spinal)
Down syndrome
a genetic variation that is associated with characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
dysplasia
abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
embryonic stem cells
undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell
endemic
refers to the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area
endocrine glands
produce hormones
endothelium
the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs
epidemic
a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area
epidemiologist
a specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group
epigastric region
located above the stomach
epithelial tissues
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
epithelium
the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membranes
etiology
the study of the causes of diseases
exocrine glands
secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
fetal alcohol syndrome
caused by the mother's consumption of alcohol during the pregnancy
food-borne and waterborne transmission
caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens that are present
frontal plane
a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
functional disorder
produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
gene
a fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
genetic disorder
a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
genetic mutation
a change of the sequence of a DNA molecule
geneticist
a specialist in the field of genetics
genetics
the study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the roles of genes in health and disease
genome
the complete set of genetic information of an individual
geriatrician
a physician who specializes in the care of older people
geriatrics
the study of the medical problems and care of the aged
gland
a group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions
hemophilia
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing
histologist
a specialist in the study of the organization of tissues at all levels
histology
the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues
homeostasis
the processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
horizontal plane
a flat crosswise plane, such as the horizon
Huntington's disease
a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child that causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife
hyperplasia
the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
hypertrophy
a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues
hypochondric regions
located on the left and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs
hypogastric region
located below the stomach
hypoplasia
the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
iatrogenic illness
an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
idiopathic disorder
an illness without known cause
iliac regions
located on the left and right sides over the hip bones
indirect contact transmission
refers to situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface
infectious disease
an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses
inferior
lowermost, below, or toward the feet
inguinal
relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen
lateral
the direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline
liquid connective tissues
transports nutrients and waste products throughout the body
loose connective tissue
surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels
lumbar regions
located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine
medial
the direction toward, or nearer, the midline
mesentery
a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
midsagittal plane
the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves
muscle tissue
contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax
muscular dystrophy
the term used to describe a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
nerve tissue
contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses
nosocomial infection
a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
nucleus
a structure within the cell that has two important functions: (1) it controls the activities of the cell, and (2) it helps the cell divide
organ
a somewhat independent part of the body that performs a special function
organic disorder
produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body
pandemic
an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
parietal peritoneum
the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
pathologist
specialized in the laboratory analysis of tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis
pathology
the study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function
pelvic cavity
the space formed by the hip bones; contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
peritoneum
a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
peritonitis
an inflammation of the peritoneum
phenylketonuria
a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing
physiology
the study of the functions of the structures of the body
posterior
situated in the back; on the back part of an organ
prenatal influences
the mother's health, behavior, and the prenatal medical care she does, or does not, receive before delivery
proximal
situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
quadrant
divided into four
recessive gene
when inherited from both parents, the offspring will have that condition; when inherited from only one parent, the offspring will not have the condition
regions of the thorax and abdomen
a descriptive system that divides the abdomen and lower portion of the thorax into nine parts
retroperitoneal
located behind the peritoneum
sagittal plane
a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions
spinal cavity
located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord
stem cells
unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division
superior
uppermost, above, or toward the head
Tay-Sachs disease
a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain
thoracic cavity
surrounds and protects the heart and lungs
tissue
a group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions
transverse plane
a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
umbilical region
surrounds the umbilicus
umbilicus
commonly known as the belly button or navel
vector-borne transmission
the spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector
ventral
refers to the front, or belly side, or the organ or body
ventral cavity
located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis
vertical plane
an up-and-down plane that is a right angle to the horizon
visceral peritoneum
the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity