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the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

Achilles tendinitis

a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon


the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body


a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally


administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder


the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement


lacking normal muscle tone or strength


weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures

biceps brachii

biceps, formed from two divisions


extreme slowness in movement


paralysis of heart muscle (cardiac arrest)

carpal tunnel release

the surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve nerve pressure

carpal tunnel syndrome

occurs when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen

chronic fatigue syndrome

a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems


the circular movement at the far end of a limb

compartment syndrome

involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles


the tightening of a muscle


the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues


a localized muscle spasm named for its cause

deep tendon reflexes

tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon

deltoid muscle

forms the muscular cap of the shoulder


the act of lowering a body part


bends the foot upward at the ankle


the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm


a mild form of ataxia


a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement


a diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle


a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation


the act of raising or lifting a body part


inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow


the study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment

exercise physiologist

a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness


increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb


the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles or groups of muscles


inflammation of a fascia


the surgical repair of fascia


a surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure

fibromyalgia syndrome

a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms


decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint

ganglion cyst

a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist

gluteus maximus

the largest muscle of the buttock

hamstring group

located at the back of the upper leg, consists of three separate muscles: biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

hamstring injury

a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles

heel spur

a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia nears its attachment to the calcaneus bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis


slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body


total paralysis affecting only one side of the body


the extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit


abnormally increased muscle function or activity


a condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles


abnormally decreased muscle function or activity


a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

impingement syndrome

occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint


the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bonen or tendon; the more moveable attachment, located farthest from the midline of the body

intermittent claudication

pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

muscle fibers

the long, slender cells that make up muscles

muscle innervations

the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve

muscle tone

the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible

muscular dystrophy

a group of more than 30 genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system


tenderness or pain in the muscles

myasthenia gravis

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles


the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it


the surgical excision of a portion of a muscle

myocardial muscles

form the muscular walls of the heart


the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles


pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia

myofascial pain syndrome

a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body

myofascial release

a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ), and carpal tunnel syndrome


the degeneration of muscle tissue


abnormal softening of muscle tissue


a weakness or slight muscular paralysis


the surgical suturing of a muscle wound


the rupture or tearing of a muscle


a surgical incision into a muscle


a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction


the surgical repair of a muscle


a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function


pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle

neuromuscular blocker

a drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles

nocturnal myoclonus

jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep


slanted or at an angle

occupational therapy

consists of activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform the activities of daily living (ADL)


the place where the muscle begins; the less moveable attachment located nearest the midline of the body

overuse injuries

minor tissue injuries that have not been given time to heal

overuse tendinitis

inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint


the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply


the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body


a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function

physical therapy

treatment to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of exercise

plantar fasciitis

an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot

plantar flexion

bends the foot downward at the ankle


a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body


the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward


paralysis of all four extremeties

range of motion testing (ROM)

a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength


in straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body


when a muscle returns to its original form

repetitive stress disorders

a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports


a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues


Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation


turns a bone on its own axis

rotator cuff tendinitis

an inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff

ruptured rotator cuff

develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues


the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging

shin splint

a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia


myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm (hiccups)

skeletal muscle relaxant

administered to relax certain muscles and to relieve the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries

skeletal muscles

attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible

smooth muscles

located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands


a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles

spasmodic torticollis

a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side


a ring-like muscle that tightly constructs the opening of a passageway

spinal cord injury

the type of paralysis is determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury

sports medicine physician

specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles


an injury of a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament


an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon


the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand, or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward


an inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint


a narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone


the surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath


the surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone


pain in a tendon


the release of a tendon from adhesions


the surgical repair of a tendon


surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon


the surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle

therapeutic ultrasound

utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue


in a crosswise direction

triceps brachii

triceps, formed from three divisions

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