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OB chapter 2 diversity in organization
Terms in this set (49)
Diversity in Organization
*) Diversity can increase the number of different viewpoints and valuing diversity shifts the focus from the difference between employees to the goals the co. wants to attain.
*) Effective diversity management increase an organization's access to the widest possible pool of skills, abilities and ideas.
*) Individual characteristics like age, gender, race, ethnicity and abilities can influence employee performance.
Two levels of diversity
*- Surface-level diversity
*- Deep-level diversity
Represents the characteristics that are easily observed such as race, gender, age, ethnicity, religion, and disability status.
They don't necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but may activate certain stereotypes.
Represents the aspects that are more difficult to see at first glance such as values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.
*) Nothing of a difference between things(making judgments about individuals based on stereotypes regarding their demographic group.
"is to note a difference between things"
*) Discrimination can lead to serious negative consequences for employers, including reduced productivity and citizenship behavior, negative conflicts, and increased turnover.
types of dicrminition
Mockery and insults
Discrimination policies or practices
unwanted sexual advanced and other verbal or phsyical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile or offensive work environment
over threats or bullying direct at members of specific groups of employees joker or negative stereotypes
exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring
mockery and insults
jokes or negative stereotypes
discrimination policies or practices
actions taken by representative of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance
personal characteristics-such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure-that are objective and easily obtained from personal records.these characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity
Biographical characteristics examples
Race and ethnicity
Sexual orientation and Gender identity
People belief that job performance declines with increasing age.
- Workforce is ageing
- Older workers hold positive qualities such as experience, judgment , strong work ethic and commitment to quality.
- Older workers lacking flexibility and resisting new technology.
- The older you get the less likely you are to quit your job.
- Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees.
- Older workers more satisfied with their work, and report better relationships with their co-workers.
- Older workers more likely to engage in citizenship behavior.
- Productivity often declines with age.
Psychological studies have found women are more agreeable and willing to conform to authority, whereas men are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of success, but those differences are minor.
*) Woman have higher rate to turn over, absenteeism than men do.
*) Parents were rated lower in job commitment , achievement, striving, and dependability than individual without children.
*) Women, especially those with pre-school age children, do prefer flexible work schedules and will seek an employer who offers options in their schedules.
Race and Ethnicity "العرق"
*) Employees ten to favor colleagues for their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, pay raises.
*) Members of racial and ethnic minorities report higher levels of discrimination in the workplace.
*) Having a positive climate for diversity overall can lead to increased sales.
Biological heritage people use to identify themselves.
is the additional set of cultural characteristics that often overlaps with race.
Disability / Special needs
*) a personas disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
*)some jobs obviously can not be accommodated to some disabilities.
*) Disabilities workers receive higher performance evaluations.
*) less likely to be hired.
*) Individual with such common mental health issues as depression and anxiety are significantly more likely to be absent from work.
*) Strong biases exist against those with mental impairment.
Refers to the length of time people have been on the job and is tied to seniority or Expressed as work experience, appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity.
*) Seniority is a time on a particular job.
*) There is positive relationship between seniority and job productivity.
*) Negative relationship between seniority and absenteeism.
*) The longer a person is in a job, the less likely he or she is to quit.
*) Tenure at an employee's previous job is a powerful predictor of that employee's future turnover.
*) Tenure and job satisfaction are positively related.
is till an issue in the workplace it is workforce.
Sexual orientation and Gender identity.
Many organizations have implemented policies and procedures protecting employees on the basis of sexual orientation.
*) Many lesbian, gay and bisexual employees keep their gender identity from their co-workers for fear of being discriminated against.
Companies are increasingly putting in place policies to govern how their organization treats employees who change genders (often called transgender employees)
*) Dealing with transgender employees requires some special considerations, such as for bathrooms, employee names, and so on.
is an individual's capacity to perform job tasks.
two types of ability
physical ability القدرة البدنية
intellectual abilities _ القدرات الذهنية
Are abilities needed to perform mental activities or the capacity to do mental activities - thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.
*) Most societies place a high value on intelligence, and for good reason
*) These skills provide solutions and actions that are positive in a culture or society's development.
*) meaning people do have specific
abilities that predict important work-related outcomes when considered
General mental ability
is an overall factor of intelligence as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions.
*) Research suggests
that although intelligent people perform better and tend to have more interesting jobs, they are also more critical when evaluating their job conditions. Thus, smart people have it better, but they also expect more
seven dimension of intellectual abilities
number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory.
ability to do speed and accurate arithmetic(accountant)
ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other(plant manager)
ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately(fire investigator)
ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem(market research)
ability to use logical and assess the implications of an argument(supervisor)
ability to imagine how object would look if its position in space were changed(interior decorator)
ability to retain an recall past experience(salesperson)
The capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
*) Importance of ability at work increases difficulty in formulating workplace policies that recognize disabilities.
*) Recognizing that individuals have different abilities that can be taken into account when making hiring decisions.
*) It is also possible to make accommodations for disabilities.
Nine basic physical ablity
Strength factors include dynamic strength, trunk strength, static strength, and explosive strength. Flexibility factors include both components of extent flexibility and dynamic flexibility. Other factors include body coordination, balance, and stamina.
Dynamic strength(strength factors
ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time
Trunk strength عضلات الجذع (strength factors
ability to exert muscular strenghts using trunk muscles
Static strength(strength factors
ability to exert force against external objects
explosive strength(strength factors
ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts
extent flexibility(flexibility factors)
ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible
dynamic flexibility(flexibility factors)
ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movemets
body coordination(other factors)
ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body
ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling of balance
Stamina قوة التحمل(other factors)
ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time
is the process and programs by which managers make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others.
*) Managers must work to develop strategies to develop ways to utilize differences to achieve work outcomes.
*) Managers start by attracting, selecting, developing, and retaining employees who can operate and excel in a workplace with diverse individuals, viewpoints, and ideas.
*) Diversity can aid in group effectiveness and it can diminish it.
*) Organizations must provide the tools to leverage the differences to obtain superior performance.
Effective Diversity programs have three components
*) First, they teach managers about the First, they teach managers about the laws they need to follow and equal employment opportunity requirements.
*) Second, they help managers and employees to see that a diverse workforce is better able to serve diverse markets.
*) Third, they take into account personal differences and approach the differences as strengths that can be utilized to enhance performance.
An effective selection process will improve the fit between employees and job requirements.
*) Diversity Management
Diversity management must be an ongoing commitment that crosses all levels of the organization.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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