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OB-3 Attitudes and job satisfaction
Terms in this set (30)
Evaluative statements or judgments either favorable or unfavorable about objects, people, or events
" how we feel about something "
What are the main components of Attitudes?
1) Cognitive Component
2) Affective Component
3) Behavioral Component
The opinion or belief segment of an attitude or the belief of the way things are
"Something in the mind"
Example:My supervisor is unfair
The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude
"Feeling about something"
Example:I dislike my supervisor.
An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
"How I will act"
Example: I am looking for other work.
is any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes (eg. tobacco executives)
Individuals will be more motivated to reduce dissonance when the attitudes or behavior are important or when they believe the dissonance is due to something they can control.
Measuring the A-B Relationship
Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.
*)The attitudes people hold determine what they do.
Relationship between attitudes and behavior
*) The importance of the attitude reflect our fundamental values, self interest, or identification with individuals or groups we value.
*) Its correspondence to behavior; over all job satisfaction would better predict a general behavior such as whether the individual was engaged in her work or motivated to contribute to her organization.
*) Its accessibility; attitude that our memories can easily access are more likely to predict our behavior.
*) The presence of social pressure
*) Whether or not a person has had direct experience with the behavior
*) The attitude/behavior relationship is stronger if it refers to something in our direct personal experience.
What are the major job attitudes?
*) Job Satisfaction
*) Job Involvement
*) Organizational Commitment
describes a positive feeling toward his or her job
"Resulting from the evaluation of the job characteristics"
A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about his or her job, while a person with a low level holds negative feelings.
the degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance to be important to self-worth.
*) Employee with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do
Employees' belief in the degree to which they affect their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy in their work.
*) Good leaders empower their employees by involving them in decisions, making them feel their work is important, and giving them discretion to their own thing.
*) High levels of both involvement and psychological empowerment are positively related to organization citizenship and job performance, reduced absences and lower resignation rates.
The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.
*) Affective - emotional attachment to organization.
*) Continuance commitment - economic value of staying.
*) Normative - Moral or ethical obligations.
"The strong relationship between the individual and the job"
*) Employee who are committed will be less likely to engage in work withdrawal even if they are dissatisfied, because the have a sense of organization loyalty.
*) Relationship between commitment and performance is strongest for new employees and weaker for more experienced employees.
*) Reductions in commitment lead to lower levels of creative performance.
*) negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover.
Perceived Organizational Support (POS)
Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being.
*) People perceive their organization as supportive when rewards are deemed fair, when employees have a voice in decisions and when the see their supervisors as supportive
*) POS perceptions have been found more likely to have higher level organizational citizenship behaviors.
An individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does.
*) Highly engaged employees have a passion for their work and feel a deep connection to their company, disengaged employees have put time but not energy or attention into their work.
*) Employees had high average levels of engagement had higher levels of customer satisfaction, more productive, higher profit, lower levels of turnover.
Are these job attitudes really all that distinct?
-No: these attitudes are highly related
-Variables may be redundant (measuring the same thing under a different name)
-While there is some distinction, there is also a lot overlap.
-overlap may cause confusion.
*) If people feel deeply engaged by their job isn't it probable they like it too. Won't people who think their organization is supportive also feel committed to it.
How do we measure job satisfaction?
Job satisfaction: a positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Two approaches for measuring job satisfaction are popular:
*) The single global rating
*) The summation of job facts.
The Single global rating
is a response to one question such as " all things considered, how satisfied are you with your job?" circle a no. between 1 and 5 on a scale form "highly satisfied" to "highly not satisfied"
*) it isn't very time consuming, freeing time for other tasks.
The summation of job facts
It identifies key elements in a job such as the nature of the work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relationships with co-workers.
*) helps manager zero in on problems and deal with them faster and more accurately.
How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?
In general, people are satisfied with their jobs.
Depends on facets of satisfaction — people overall satisfied with their work itself, supervisors, co-workers than they have been with their pay and with promotion opportunities.
Al though job satisfaction appears relevant across cultures, that doesn't mean there are no cultural differences in job satisfaction.
Causes of Job Satisfaction
*) Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point ( 40K)and later there is no relationship between amount of pay and job
*) Money may bring happiness buy not necessarily job satisfaction.
*) Personality also plays a role.
- The work you did
- people with whom your worked
- independence and autonomy
- Feeling safe in the work environment
- flexibility to balance life and work issues.
- Job security
- Management recognition of employee job performance
- opportunities to use skills
- Contribution of work to organization's business goals.
How Personality plays a role in job satisfaction?
People who believe in their inner worth and basic competence " Core self- evaluations" are more satisfied with their jobs than those who do not.
Those with negative core self-evaluations set less ambitious goals and are more likely to give up when confronting difficulties.
How employee responses to dissatisfaction?
*) Exit: response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning.
*) Voice: response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity.
*) Loyalty: response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism and trusting the organization and its management to " do the right thing"
*) Neglect: response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes, chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate.
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance (3)
*) Happy workers are more likely to be productive workers.
*) organization with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer.
*) Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied!
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
*) Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.
*) They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive.
They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long-term customer relationships.
They are experienced.
Job satisfaction and absenteeism
*) there is negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism.
*) dissatisfied employees are more likely to miss work.
*) dissatisfied employees have high absence rate.
*) Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.
Job satisfaction and turnover.
*) The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover is stronger than between satisfaction and absenteeism.
*) Job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover because they have, or perceive, many available alternatives.
*) Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.
Job Satisfaction and OCB ( organisational citizenship behaviour)
*) Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
*) People who are more satisfied with their jobs are more likely to engage in OCBs.
*) Those who feel their co-workers support them are more likely to engage in helpful behaviors.
*) when people are in a good mood, they are more likely to engage in OCBs.
Job satisfaction and workplace deviance
Job dissatisfaction and antagonistic relationships with co-workers predict a variety of behaviors organizations fund undesirable, including unionization attempts, substance abuse, stealing at work, undue socializing, and tardiness.
Manager always "don't get it"
*) many managers are unconcerned about employee job satisfaction.
*) regular surveys can reduce gaps between what mangers think employees feel and what they really fee.
*) Organization need to find out where they can be improved.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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OB chapter 2 diversity in organization
OB Ch 4 Emotions and Moods
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