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127 terms

Medical Terminology, Chapter 9, The Urinary System

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ablation
the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function
acute renal failure (ARF)
has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia
anuria
the absence of urine formation by the kidneys
benign prostatis hypertrophy
an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50
bladder retraining
a program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals
bladder ultrasound
the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination
catheterization
performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid into the bladder
chronic renal failure
the progressive loss of renal functions
computed tomography
used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system
cystalgia
pain in the urinary bladder
cystectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
cystitis
an inflammation of the bladder
cystocele
a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall; also called a fallen bladder
cystography
a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter
cystolith
a stone located in the urinary bladder
cystopexy
the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall
cystorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of the bladder
cystoscopy
the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope
dialysis
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
diuresis
the increased output of urine
digital rectal examination
performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, and indications of prostate cancer
diuretics
medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt
dysuria
difficult or painful urination
edema
excessive fluid in the body tissues
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys
enuresis
the involuntary discharge of urine
epispadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel
female urethra
approximately 1.5 inches long; urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina; conveys only urine
glomerulonephritis
a form of nephritis that involves primarily the glomeruli; also known as Bright's disease
glomerulus
a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule
hemodialysis
the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood to replace the function of damaged kidneys
hemolytic uremic syndrome
a condition in which hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia cause acute renal failure and possibly death
hydronephrosis
the dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys
hydroureter
the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked
hyperproteinuria
the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine
hypoproteinemia
the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood
hypospadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is into the vagina
incontinence
the inability to control excretory functions
indwelling catheter
one that remains inside the body for a prolonged time
interstitial cystitis
a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder
intravenous pyelogram
a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters used to diagnose changed in the urinary tract
Kegel exercises
a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women
KUB (Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder)
a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contract medium
lithotomy
a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder
lithotripsy
to crush a stone
male urethra
approximately 8 inches long; urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis; transports both urine and semen
meatotomy
a surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening
medulla
the inner region of the kidney
nephrectasis
the distention of a kidney
nephritis
an inflammation of the kidney or kidneys
nephrolith
a stone located in the kidney; also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone
nephrolithiasis
a disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the kidney
nephrolithotomy
the surgical removal of a nephrolith (kidney stone) through an incision in the kidney
nephrologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys
nephrolysis
the freeing of a kidney from adhesions
nephron
a functional unit of the kidney
nephropathy
any disease of the kidney including degenerative and inflammatory conditions
nephropexy
the surgical fixation of a floating kidney
nephroptosis
the prolapse of a kidney
nephropyosis
suppuration (formation or discharge of pus) of the kidney
nephrosis
any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation
nephrostomy
the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body
nephrotic syndrome
a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood
neurogenic bladder
a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination
nocturia
excessive urination during the night
nocturnal enuresis
urinary incontinence during sleep
oliguria
scanty urination
overactive bladder (OAB)
occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active
paraspadias
a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis
percutaneous nephrolithotomy
treatment of a kidney stone that is performed with a nephroscope inserted through a small incision in the back
peritoneal dialysis
dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood
polycystic kidney disease
a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
polyuria
excessive urination
prostate cancer
one of the most common cancers among men
prostate gland
part of the male reproductive system and surrounds the urethra
prostatectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
blood test used to screen for prostate cancer
prostatism
the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatis hypertrophy
prostatitis
an inflammation of the prostate gland
pyelitis
an inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritis
an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney
pyeloplasty
the surgical repair of the renal pelvis
pyelotomy
a surgical incision into the renal pelvis
renal
pertaining to the kidneys
renal colic
an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passing of a kidney stone
renal cortex
the outer region of the kidney
renal failure
the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions
renal pelvis
the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla
renal transplantation
the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys; a kidney transplant
retrograde urography
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract
stone
an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body; also known as a calculus
stress incontinence
the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing
suprapubic catheterization
the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone
transurethral prostatectomy
the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope
trigone
the smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the openings of the ureter and urethra
trigonitis
an inflammation of the urinary bladder that is localized in the region of the trigone
urea
the major waste product of protein metabolism
uremia
a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood
ureterectasis
the distention of a ureter
ureterectomy
the surgical removal of a ureter
ureterolith
a stone located in a ureter
ureteroplasty
the surgical repair of a ureter
ureterorrhagia
the discharge of blood from the ureter
ureterorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a ureter
ureters
two narrow tubes which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder
urethra
the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body
urethral catheterization
peformed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder
urethral meatus
the external opening of the urethra
urethritis
an inflammation of the urethra
urethropexy
the surgical fixation of the urethra, usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence
urethrorrhagia
bleeding from the urethra
urethrorrhea
an abnormal discharge from the urethra
urethrostenosis
abnormal narrowing of the urethra
urethrostomy
the surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin
urethrotomy
a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture
urinalysis
the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
urinary bladder
a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body
urinary hesitancy
difficulty in starting a urinary stream
urinary incontinence
the inability to control the voiding of urine
urinary tract infection (UTI)
an infection that usually begins in the bladder but that can affect all or parts of the urinary system
urination
the normal process of excreting urine
urochrome
the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color
urologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males
vesicovaginal fistula
an abnormal opening between the bladder and vaginan that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina
voiding cystourethrography
a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra
Wilms tumor
a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children