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the process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances


relating to sound or hearing

acoustic nerves

transmits information to the brain, then the brain sends messages to muscles in all parts of the body to ensure the equilibrium is maintained

acute otitis media

usually associated with an upper respiratory infection and is most commonly seen in young children

acute purulent otitis media

a buildup of pus within the middle ear due to infection


right ear (auris dexter)


appendages or accessory structures of an organ

air conduction

the process by which sound waves enter the ear through the pinna


a dimness of vision or the partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, without detectable disease of the eye


any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina


a condition in which the pupils are unequal in size

anterior chamber

located behind the cornea and in front of the iris

anterior segment

makes up the front one-third of the eyeball

aqueous fluid

clear watery substance that fill the anterior and posterior chambers


left ear (auris sinister)


a condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea


each ear or both ears (auris uterque)

audiological evaluation

the measurement of the ability to hear and understand speech sounds based on their pitch and loudness


specializes in the measurement of hearing function and in the rehabilitation of persons with hearing impairments


the use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity


pertaining to the sense of hearing

auditory ossicles

three small bones found in the middle ear


pressure-related ear discomfort that can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving in the mountains, scuba diving, or when the Eustachian tube is blocked

binaural testing

involves both ears


drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis


the inability to see; a person is legally blind when his or her best-corrected vision is reduced to 20/200 or less

bone conduction

occurs as the eardrum vibrates and moves the auditory ossicles


the angle where the upper and lower eyelids meet


the loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity


a sticky yellow-brown substance secreted by ceruminous glands that line the auditory canal


a localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction within a sebaceous gland


the opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides the blood supply for the entire eye

ciliary body

a set of muscles and supersensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina

closed-angle glaucoma

the opening between the cornea and iris narrows so that fluid cannot reach the trabecular meshwork


the snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that forms the inner ear

cochlear duct

a fluid filled cavity within the cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike it

cochlear implant

an implanted electronic device that can give a deaf person a useful auditory understanding of the environment and/or hearing and help them to understand speech

conductive hearing loss

occurs when sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid-filled inner ear


the surgical repair of the conjunctiva


the transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid


an inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually caused by an infection or allergy; also known as pinkeye


the simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other


the transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris and pupil

corneal abrasion

an injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea

corneal transplant

the surgical replacement of a scarred or diseased cornea with clear corneal tissue from a donor

corneal ulcer

a pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury


an inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection


the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear


commonly used as the measurement of the loudness of sound


the unit of measurement of a lens' refractive power


the perception of two images of a single object; also known as double vision


the eversion of the edge of an eyelid


the normal relationship between the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina


the inversion of the edge of an eyelid


a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose


strabismus characterized by an inward deviation of one or both eyes; also known as cross-eyes

Eustachian tubes

narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat


inflammation of the Eustachian tube


strabismus characterized by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other; also known as walleye

external auditory canal

transmits sound waves from the pinna to the tympanic membrane of the middle ear


outside the eyeball


a 1-inch sphere with only about one-sixth of its surface visible


a surgical procedure in which a new opening is created in the labyrinth to restore hearing

fluorescein angiography

a radiographic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium

fluorescein staining

the application of fluorescent dye to the surface of the eye

fovea centralis

a pit in the middle of the macula; color vision is best in this area


a group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve

hearing aid

an external electronic device that uses a microphone to detect sounds


blindness in one-half of the visual field


a measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch it


a pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland; also known as a stye


a defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina; also known as farsightedness

impacted cerumen

an accumulation of earwax that forms a solid mass by adhering to the walls of the external auditory canal


the auditory ossicle known as the anvil

infectious myringitis

a contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum

inner canthus

where the eyelids meet nearest the nose

inner ear

contains the sensory receptors for hearing and balance


within the eyeball

intraocular lens

a surgically implanted replacement for a natural lens that has been removed

intraocular pressure

a measurement of the fluid pressure inside the eye


the surgical removal of a portion of the tissue of the iris


the colorful muscular layer of the eye that surrounds the pupil


an inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye


an inflammation of the cornea


the surgical removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth


an inflammation of the labyrinth that can result in vertigo and deafness


a surgical incision between two of the fluid chambers of the labyrinth to allow the pressure to equalize

lacrimal apparatus

the structures that produce, store, and remove tears

lacrimal canal

consists of a duct at the inner corner of each eye

lacrimal duct

the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose

lacrimal fluid

tears; maintains moisture on the anterior surface of the eyeball

lacrimal glands

located on the underside of the upper eyelid just above the outer corner of each eye; secretes lacrimal fluid (tears)

lacrimal sac

an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct

laser iritodomy

uses a focused beam of light to create a hole in the iris of the eye

laser trabeculoplasty

used to treat open-angle glaucoma by creating openings in the travecular meshwork to allow fluid to drain properly


Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis; used to treat vision conditions, such as myopia, that are caused by the shape of the cornea


the clear, flexible, curved structure that focuses images on the retina


the general term used to describe the surgical removal of a cataract-clouded lens


a clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina

macular degeneration

a gradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged, resulting in the loss of central vision, but not in total blindness


the auditory ossicle known as the hammer

mastoid bone cells

hollow air spaces located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone


the surgical removal of mastoid cells


an inflammation of any part of the mastoid bone cells

Meniere's syndrome

a rare chronic disease in which the amount of fluid in the inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, a fluctuating hearing loss (usually in one ear) and tinnitus

monaural testing

involves one ear


the inability to distinguish colors; also known as color blindness

mydriatic drops

medicated drops placed into the eyes that produce temporary paralysis


a defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina; also known as nearsightedness


the surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes

noise-induced hearing loss

a type of nerve deafness caused by repeated exposure to extremely loud noises such as a gunshot, or to moderately loud noise that continues for long periods of time


a condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night; also known as night blindness


an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use


pertaining to the eye

ocular prosthesis

artificial eye


right eye (oculus dexter)

open-angle glaucoma

the most common form of glaucoma, where the trabecular meshwork gradually becomes blocked, causing a buildup of pressure


a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the eyes and vision


the visual examination of the fundus (back part) of the eye with an ophthalmoscope


pertaining to the eye or sight

optic disk

a small region in the eye where the nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve

optic nerve

transmits nerve impulses from the retina to the brain


holds a Doctor of Optometry degree and specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed


the bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects the eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves


a surgical incision into the orbit

organ of Corti

receives the vibrations from the cochlear duct and relays them to the auditory nerve fibers


left eye (oculus sinister)


pain in the ear; earache


any inflammation of the ear

otitis media

an inflammation of the middle ear


a fungal infection of the external auditory canal; swimmer's ear


the surgical repair of the pinna of the ear


the flow of pus from the ear


bleeding from the ear


the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear


each eye or both eyes (oculus uterque)

outer canthus

where the eyelids meet farthest from the nose

oval window

the membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear


swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk

patulous Eustachian tube

distention of the Eustachian tube

periorbital edema

swelling surrounding the eye or eyes


an abbreviation means Pupils are Equal, Round, Response to Light and Accommodation


the use of ultrasonic vibration to shatter and remove the lens clouded by a cataract


the use of lasers to treat some forms of wet macular degeneration by sealing leaking or damaged blood vessels


the external portion of the ear

posterior chamber

located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place

posterior segment

makes up the remaining two-thirds of the eyeball


a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages


the condition of common changes in the eye that occur with aging

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