How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

192 terms

Medical Terminology, Chapter 11, Special Senses: Eyes and Ears

STUDY
PLAY
accommodation
the process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances
acoustic
relating to sound or hearing
acoustic nerves
transmits information to the brain, then the brain sends messages to muscles in all parts of the body to ensure the equilibrium is maintained
acute otitis media
usually associated with an upper respiratory infection and is most commonly seen in young children
acute purulent otitis media
a buildup of pus within the middle ear due to infection
AD
right ear (auris dexter)
adnexa
appendages or accessory structures of an organ
air conduction
the process by which sound waves enter the ear through the pinna
amblyopia
a dimness of vision or the partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, without detectable disease of the eye
ametropia
any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina
anisocoria
a condition in which the pupils are unequal in size
anterior chamber
located behind the cornea and in front of the iris
anterior segment
makes up the front one-third of the eyeball
aqueous fluid
clear watery substance that fill the anterior and posterior chambers
AS
left ear (auris sinister)
astigmatism
a condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea
AU
each ear or both ears (auris uterque)
audiological evaluation
the measurement of the ability to hear and understand speech sounds based on their pitch and loudness
audiologist
specializes in the measurement of hearing function and in the rehabilitation of persons with hearing impairments
audiometry
the use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity
auditory
pertaining to the sense of hearing
auditory ossicles
three small bones found in the middle ear
barotrauma
pressure-related ear discomfort that can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving in the mountains, scuba diving, or when the Eustachian tube is blocked
binaural testing
involves both ears
blepharoptosis
drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
blindness
the inability to see; a person is legally blind when his or her best-corrected vision is reduced to 20/200 or less
bone conduction
occurs as the eardrum vibrates and moves the auditory ossicles
canthus
the angle where the upper and lower eyelids meet
cataract
the loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity
cerumen
a sticky yellow-brown substance secreted by ceruminous glands that line the auditory canal
chalazion
a localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction within a sebaceous gland
choroid
the opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides the blood supply for the entire eye
ciliary body
a set of muscles and supersensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina
closed-angle glaucoma
the opening between the cornea and iris narrows so that fluid cannot reach the trabecular meshwork
cochlea
the snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that forms the inner ear
cochlear duct
a fluid filled cavity within the cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike it
cochlear implant
an implanted electronic device that can give a deaf person a useful auditory understanding of the environment and/or hearing and help them to understand speech
conductive hearing loss
occurs when sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid-filled inner ear
conjuctivoplasty
the surgical repair of the conjunctiva
conjunctiva
the transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid
conjunctivitis
an inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually caused by an infection or allergy; also known as pinkeye
convergence
the simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other
cornea
the transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris and pupil
corneal abrasion
an injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea
corneal transplant
the surgical replacement of a scarred or diseased cornea with clear corneal tissue from a donor
corneal ulcer
a pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury
dacryoadenitis
an inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection
deafness
the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear
decibel
commonly used as the measurement of the loudness of sound
diopter
the unit of measurement of a lens' refractive power
diplopia
the perception of two images of a single object; also known as double vision
ectropion
the eversion of the edge of an eyelid
emmetropia
the normal relationship between the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina
entropion
the inversion of the edge of an eyelid
epicanthus
a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose
esotropia
strabismus characterized by an inward deviation of one or both eyes; also known as cross-eyes
Eustachian tubes
narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat
eustachitis
inflammation of the Eustachian tube
exotropia
strabismus characterized by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other; also known as walleye
external auditory canal
transmits sound waves from the pinna to the tympanic membrane of the middle ear
extraocular
outside the eyeball
eyeball
a 1-inch sphere with only about one-sixth of its surface visible
fenestration
a surgical procedure in which a new opening is created in the labyrinth to restore hearing
fluorescein angiography
a radiographic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium
fluorescein staining
the application of fluorescent dye to the surface of the eye
fovea centralis
a pit in the middle of the macula; color vision is best in this area
glaucoma
a group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve
hearing aid
an external electronic device that uses a microphone to detect sounds
hemianopia
blindness in one-half of the visual field
hertz
a measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch it
hordeolum
a pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland; also known as a stye
hyperopia
a defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina; also known as farsightedness
impacted cerumen
an accumulation of earwax that forms a solid mass by adhering to the walls of the external auditory canal
incus
the auditory ossicle known as the anvil
infectious myringitis
a contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum
inner canthus
where the eyelids meet nearest the nose
inner ear
contains the sensory receptors for hearing and balance
intraocular
within the eyeball
intraocular lens
a surgically implanted replacement for a natural lens that has been removed
intraocular pressure
a measurement of the fluid pressure inside the eye
iridectomy
the surgical removal of a portion of the tissue of the iris
iris
the colorful muscular layer of the eye that surrounds the pupil
iritis
an inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye
keratitis
an inflammation of the cornea
labyrinthectomy
the surgical removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth
labyrinthitis
an inflammation of the labyrinth that can result in vertigo and deafness
labyrinthotomy
a surgical incision between two of the fluid chambers of the labyrinth to allow the pressure to equalize
lacrimal apparatus
the structures that produce, store, and remove tears
lacrimal canal
consists of a duct at the inner corner of each eye
lacrimal duct
the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose
lacrimal fluid
tears; maintains moisture on the anterior surface of the eyeball
lacrimal glands
located on the underside of the upper eyelid just above the outer corner of each eye; secretes lacrimal fluid (tears)
lacrimal sac
an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct
laser iritodomy
uses a focused beam of light to create a hole in the iris of the eye
laser trabeculoplasty
used to treat open-angle glaucoma by creating openings in the travecular meshwork to allow fluid to drain properly
LASIK
Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis; used to treat vision conditions, such as myopia, that are caused by the shape of the cornea
lens
the clear, flexible, curved structure that focuses images on the retina
lensectomy
the general term used to describe the surgical removal of a cataract-clouded lens
macula
a clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina
macular degeneration
a gradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged, resulting in the loss of central vision, but not in total blindness
malleus
the auditory ossicle known as the hammer
mastoid bone cells
hollow air spaces located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone
mastoidectomy
the surgical removal of mastoid cells
mastoiditis
an inflammation of any part of the mastoid bone cells
Meniere's syndrome
a rare chronic disease in which the amount of fluid in the inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, a fluctuating hearing loss (usually in one ear) and tinnitus
monaural testing
involves one ear
monochromatism
the inability to distinguish colors; also known as color blindness
mydriatic drops
medicated drops placed into the eyes that produce temporary paralysis
myopia
a defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina; also known as nearsightedness
myringotomy
the surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes
noise-induced hearing loss
a type of nerve deafness caused by repeated exposure to extremely loud noises such as a gunshot, or to moderately loud noise that continues for long periods of time
nyctalopia
a condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night; also known as night blindness
nystagmus
an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use
ocular
pertaining to the eye
ocular prosthesis
artificial eye
OD
right eye (oculus dexter)
open-angle glaucoma
the most common form of glaucoma, where the trabecular meshwork gradually becomes blocked, causing a buildup of pressure
ophthalmologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the eyes and vision
ophthalmoscopy
the visual examination of the fundus (back part) of the eye with an ophthalmoscope
optic
pertaining to the eye or sight
optic disk
a small region in the eye where the nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve
optic nerve
transmits nerve impulses from the retina to the brain
optometrist
holds a Doctor of Optometry degree and specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed
orbit
the bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects the eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves
orbitotomy
a surgical incision into the orbit
organ of Corti
receives the vibrations from the cochlear duct and relays them to the auditory nerve fibers
OS
left eye (oculus sinister)
otalgia
pain in the ear; earache
otitis
any inflammation of the ear
otitis media
an inflammation of the middle ear
otomycosis
a fungal infection of the external auditory canal; swimmer's ear
otoplasty
the surgical repair of the pinna of the ear
otopyorrhea
the flow of pus from the ear
otorrhagia
bleeding from the ear
otosclerosis
the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear
OU
each eye or both eyes (oculus uterque)
outer canthus
where the eyelids meet farthest from the nose
oval window
the membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear
papilledema
swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk
patulous Eustachian tube
distention of the Eustachian tube
periorbital edema
swelling surrounding the eye or eyes
PERRLA
an abbreviation means Pupils are Equal, Round, Response to Light and Accommodation
phacoemulsification
the use of ultrasonic vibration to shatter and remove the lens clouded by a cataract
photocoagulation
the use of lasers to treat some forms of wet macular degeneration by sealing leaking or damaged blood vessels
pinna
the external portion of the ear
posterior chamber
located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place
posterior segment
makes up the remaining two-thirds of the eyeball
presbycusis
a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages
presbyopia
the condition of common changes in the eye that occur with aging
pseudophakia
an eye in which the natural lens has been replaced with an intraocular lens
pterygium
a benign growth on the cornea that can become large enough to distort vision
pupil
the black circular opening in the center of the iris that permits light to enter the eye
radial keratotomy
a surgical procedure to treat myopia
refraction
the ability of the lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina
refraction
an examination procedure to determine an eye's refractive error so that the best corrective lenses can be prescribed
refractive disorder
a focusing problem that occurs when the lens and cornea do not bend light so that it focuses properly on the retina
retina
the sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye
retinal detachment
the retina is pulled away from its attachment to the choroid in the back of the eye
retinal tear
occurs when a hole develops in the retina as it is pulled away from its normal position
retinitis pigmentosa
a progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night and peripheral vision
retinopexy
used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment
rods and cones
in the retina, receives images that have passed through the lens of the eye
sclera
maintains the shape of the eye and protects the delicate inner layers of tissue; the white of the eye
scleritis
an inflammation of the sclera
scotoma
an abnormal area of absent or depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision
semicircular canals
contain the liquid endolymph and sensitive hair-like cells; the bending of these hair-like cells in response to the movements of the head set up impulses in nerve fibers to help maintain equilibrium
sensorineural conduction
occurs when sound vibrations reach the inner ear
sensorineural hearing loss
develops when the auditory nerve or hair cells in the inner ear are damaged
serous otitis media
a fluid buildup in the middle ear that can follow acute otitis media or can be caused by obstruction of the Eustachian tube
slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy
a diagnostic procedure in which a narrow beam of light is focused onto parts of the eye to permit the ophthalmologist to examine the structures at the front of the eye including the cornea, iris, and lens
Snellen chart
used to measure visual acuity
stapedectomy
the surgical removal of the top portion of the stapes bone and the insertion of a small prosthetic device known as a piston that conducts sound vibrations to the inner ear
stapes
the auditory ossicle known as the stirrup
strabismus
a disorder in which the eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly because the eye muscles are unable to focus together
subconjunctival hemorrhage
bleeding between the conjunctiva and the sclera
synechia
an adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea
tarsorrhaphy
the partial, or complete, suturing together of the upper and lower eyelids
tarsus
the framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provides the necessary stiffness and shape
tinnitus
a ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears
tonometry
the measurement of intraocular pressure
tympanic membrane
the eardrum; located between the outer and middle ear
tympanometry
the use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear
tympanoplasty
the surgical correction of a damaged middle ear
tympanostomy tubes
tiny ventilating tubes placed through the eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids and to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infections
uveal tract
the pigmented layer of the eye
vertigo
a sense of whirling, dizziness, and the loss of balance, that is often combined with nausea and vomiting
visual acuity
the ability to distinguish object details and shape at a distance
visual field testing
performed to determine losses in peripheral vision
vitrectomy
the removal of the vitreous fluid and its replacement with a clear solution
vitreous detachment
occurs as aging causes the vitreous gel to slowly shrink
vitreous gel
a soft, clear, jelly-like mass that contains millions of fine fibers
xerophthalmia
drying of eye surfaces including the conjunctiva; also known as dry eye