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170 terms

Medical Terminology, Chapter 12, The Integumentary System

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abrasion
an injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away
abscess
a closed pocket containing pus that is caused by a bacterial infection
acne vulgaris
a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an overproduction of sebum
actinis keratosis
a precancerous skin growth that occurs on sun-damaged skin
adipose tissue
fat
albinism
a genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises of the eyes
alopecia
the partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp
alopecia areata
an autoimmune disorder that attacks the hair follicles, causing well-defined bald areas on the scalp or elsewhere on the body
alopecia capitis totalis
an uncommon condition characterized by the loss of all the hair on the scalp
alopecia universalis
the total loss of hair on all parts of the body
anhidrosis
the abnormal condition of lacking sweat in response to heat
arrector pili
tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect
basal cell carcinoma
a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis; this is the most common and least harmful type of skin cancer because it is slow growing and rarely spreads to other parts of the body
biopsy
the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis
blepharoplasty
the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing excess fat, skin, and muscle
botox
a formulation of botulinum toxin type A; injections that temporarily block the nerve signals to the injected muscle, reduce moderate to severe frown lines for up to 3-4 months
bulla
a large blister that is usually more than 0.5 cm in diameter
burn
an injury to body tissues caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation
callus
a thickening of part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing
carbuncle
a cluster of connected furuncles (boils)
cauterization
the destruction of tissue by burning
cellulitis
an acute, rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissues that is characterized by malaise, swelling, warmth, and red streaks
chemabrasion
the use of chemicals to remove the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring, fine wrinkling, and keratoses
chloasma
a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face
cicatrix
a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound
clubbing
abnormal curving of the nails that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips
collagen
a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin and in the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
collagen replacement therapy
a form of soft-tissue augmentation used to soften facial lines or scars or to make lips appear fuller
comedo
a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle
contact dermatitis (CD)
a localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant
contusion
an injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin and is characterized by discoloration and pain
cosmetic surgeon
a physician who specializes in the surgical restoration and reconstruction of body structures
crust
a collection of dried serum and cellular debris; a scab
cryosurgery
the destruction or elimination of abnormal tissue cells through the application of extreme cold by using liquid nitrogen
curettage
the removal of material from the surface by scraping
cutaneous
relating to the skin
cuticle
a narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root, protecting the new keratin cells as they form
cyst
an abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semisolid material
debridement
the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing
dermabrasion
a form of abrasion involving the use of a revolving wire brush or sandpaper
dermatitis
an inflammation of the skin
dermatologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the skin
dermatoplasty
the replacement of damaged skin with healthy tissue taken from a donor site on the patient's body
dermatosis
a general term used to denote skin lesions or eruptions of any type that are not associated with inflammation
dermis
the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis
diaphoresis
profuse sweating
dysplastic nevi
atypical moles that may develop into skin cancer
ecchymosis
a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin; a bruise
eczema
a form of persistent or recurring dermatitis that is usually characterized by redness, itching, and dryness, with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding
electrolysis
the use of electric current to destroy hair follicles in order to produce the relatively permanent removal of undesired hair
epidermis
the outermost layer of the skin
epithelial tissues
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
erythema
redness of the skin due to capillary dilation
erythroderma
abnormal redness of the entire skin surface
exfoliative cytology
a technique in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope
exfoliative dermatitis
a condition in which there is widespread scaling of the skin, often with pruritus, erythroderma, and hair loss
female pattern baldness
a condition in which the hair thins in the front and on the sides of the scalp and sometimes on the crown
first-degree burn
superficial burn; no blisters, superficial damage to the epidermis
fissure
a groove or crack-like break in the skin
folliculitis
an inflammation of the hair follicles
furuncles
large, tender, swollen areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands; boils
gangrene
tissue necrosis most commonly caused by a loss of circulation to the affected tissues
granulation tissue
the tissue that normally forms during the healing of a wound
granuloma
a general term used to describe small, knot-like swellings of granulation tissue in the epidermis
hair
rod-like structures composed of tightly fused, dead protein cells filled with hard keratin
hair follicles
the sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers
hematoma
a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues, usually caused by an injury
heparin
an anticoagulant released in response to an injury
hidrosis
the production and excretion of sweat
hirsutism
the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern
histamine
released in response to allergens, causes the signs of an allergic response, including itching and increased mucus secretion
hyperhidrosis
a condition of sweating in one area or over the whole body
ichthyosis
a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin
impetigo
a highly contagious bacterial skin infection that commonly occurs in children
incision and drainage (I&D)
involves incision (cutting open) of a lesion, such as an abscess, and draining the contents
infestation
the dwelling of microscopic parasites on external surface tissue
keloid
an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the incision
keratin
a fibrous, water-repellant protein
keratosis
any skin growth, such as a wart or a callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the skin
koilonychia
a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon
laceration
a torn or jagged wound, or an accidental cut wound
laser
light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
lesion
a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury
lipectomy
the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin
lipedema
a chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in the tissues just under the skin of the hips and legs
lipocytes
fat cells
lipoma
a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer
liposuction
the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction
lunula
a pale half-moon-shaped region at every nail root that is generally most easily seen in the thumbnail
lupus erythematosus
an autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk
macule
a discolored, flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter
male pattern baldness
a common hair-loss pattern in men, with the hairline receding from the front to the back until only a horseshoe-shaped area of hair remains in the back and at the temples
malignant melanoma
a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes; this is the most serious type of skin cancer
mast cells
found in the connective tissue of the dermis; respond to injury, infection, or allergy by producing and releasing substances, including heparin and histamine
melanocytes
cells that produce and contain a dark brown to black pigment called melanin
melanosis
any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in different parts of the body
miliaria
an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells; also known as heat rash and prickly heat (do not confuse with malaria)
Mohs surgery
a technique used to treat skin cancer
nail root
fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin
nails
protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger
necrotizing fascilitis
a severe infection caused by Group A strep bacteria
nevi
small, dark skin growths that develop from melanocytes in the skin; also known as moles
nodule
a solid, raised skin lesion that is larger than 0.5 cm in diameter and deeper than a papule
onychia
an inflammation of the matrix of the nail that usually results in the loss of the nail
onychocryptosis
the edges of a toenail, usually on the big toe, curve inward and cut into the skin; also known as an ingrown toenail
onychomycosis
a fungal infection of the nail
onychophagia
nail biting or nail eating
papilloma
a benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body
papule
a small, raised red lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter and does not contain puss
paronychia
an acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail
pediculosis
an infestation with lice
pediculosis capitis
an infestation with head lice
pediculosis corporis
an infestation with body lice
pediculosis pubis
an infestation with lice in the pubic hair and pubic region
perspiration
secreted by sweat glands and is made up of 99% water plus some salt and metabolic waste products; sweat
perspiring
sweating; one way in which the body excretes excess water
petechiae
very small, pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter
plaque
a scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules
polyp
a general term used most commonly to describe a mushroom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane, such a polyp in the nose
pores
openings on the surface of the skin for the ducts of the sweat glands
port-wine stain
a large, reddish-purple discoloration of the face or neck
pressure sore
an ulcerated area in which prolonged pressure has caused tissue death
pruritus
also known as itching and is associated with most forms of dermatitis
psoriasis
a common skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks
puncture wound
a deep hole made by a sharp object such as a nail
purpura
the appearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin
purulent
producing or containing pus
pustule
a small, circumscribed lesion containing pus; a pimple
pyoderma
any acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo
rhinophyma
a condition characterized by hyperplasia (overgrowth) of the tissues of the nose and is associated with advanced rosacea; usually occurs in older men
rhytidectomy
the surgical removal of excess skin and fat around the face to eliminate wrinkles; also known as a facelift
rosacea
characterized by tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels
scabies
a skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite
scales
flakes or dry patches made up of excess dead epidermal cells
scleroderma
an autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissues become thickened and hardened, causing the skin to become hard and swollen
sclerotherapy
used in the treatment of spider veins
sebaceous cyst
a closed sac associated with a sebaceous gland that is found just under the skin
sebaceous glands
secrete sebum (oil) that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin
seborrhea
overactivity of the sebaceous glands that results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum
seborrheic dermatitis
an inflammation that causes scaling and itching of the upper layers of the skin or scalp
seborrheic keratosis
a benign skin growth that has a waxy or "pasted on" look
sebum
released through ducts opening into the hair follicles
second-degree burn
partial thickness burn; blisters, damage to the epidermis and dermis
sensory nerve endings
sensory receptors stimuli such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure
skin
covers the external surfaces of the body
skin cancer
a harmful, malignant growth on the skin
skin tags
small, flesh-colored or light brown polyps that hand from the body by fine stalks
sleep hyperhidrosis
the occurrence of excessive hyperhidrosis during sleep; also known as night sweats
squamous cell carcinoma
originates as a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium; however, it can quickly spread to other body systems
squamous epithelial tissue
forms the upper layer of the epidermis
strawberry hemangioma
a soft, raised, dark-reddish-purple birthmark
subcutaneous layer
located just below the skin, connects the skin to the surface muscles
sunburn
a form of erythema in which skin cells are damaged by exposure to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight
sunscreen
blocks out the harmful ultraviolet B (UVB) rays of the sun
sweat glands
tiny, coiled glands found on almost all body surfaces, help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat
third-degree burn
full thickness burn; damage to the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers, and possibly also the muscle below
tinea
a fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails; also known as ringworm
tinea capitis
found on the scalps of children
tinea corporis
a fungal infection of the skin on the body
tinea cruris
found in the genital area; also known as jock itch
tinea pedis
found between the toes and on the feet; athlete's foot
tinea versicolor
a fungal infection that causes painless, discolored areas on the skin
ulcer
an open lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges
unguis
fingernail or toenail; the keratin plate protecting the dorsal surface of the last bone of each finger and toe
urticaria
itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction
verrucae
small, hard skin lesions caused by the human papilloma virus; warts
vesicle
a small blister, less than 0.5 cm in diameter, containing watery fluid
vitiligo
a skin condition resulting from the destruction of the melanocytes due to unknown causes
wheal
a small bump that itches; a welt
xeroderma
excessively dry skin