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abnormal enlargement of the extremeties (hands and feet) that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty

Addison's disease

occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone


inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenocorticotroic hormone (ACTH)

stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex


regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys

aldosterone (ALD)

aids in regulating the levels of salt and water in the body


an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone

anabolic steroids

chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone


influence sex-related characteristics


hormones that influence sex-related characteristics

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted

antithyroid drug

a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

calcitonin (CAL)

works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues

chemical thyroidectomy

the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells

Conn's syndrome

a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone


the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex


regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body; also has an anti-inflammatory action


the synethetic equivalent of corticosteroids produced by the body


a congenital form of hypothyroidism

Cushing's syndrome

caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol

diabetes insipidus

caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone

diabetes mellitus

a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both

diabetic coma

caused by very high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)

diabetic retinopathy

occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causing blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball


mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood


a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands


any disease caused by a disorder of the endocrine system

epinephrine (Epi, EPI)

stimulates the sympathetic nervous system; a synthetic hormone used as a vasoconstrictor to treat conditions such as heart dysrhythmias and asthma attacks

estrogen (E)

develops and maintains the female secondary sex characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle


an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

fasting blood sugar test

measures the glucose (blood sugar) levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

in the female, stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova (eggs); in the male, stimulates the production of sperm

fructosamine test

measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks


a reproductive cell, sperm in the male and ova (eggs) in the female

gestational diabetes

a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies


abnormal overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion o fthe growth hormone before puberty

glucagon (GCG)

increases the level of glucose in the bloodstreasm


blood sugar; the basic form of energy used by the body


the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose


an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland


any hormone that stimulates the gonads


ovaries in females and testicles in males; gamete-producing glands

Graves' disease

an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism and is characterized by goiter and/or exophthalmos

growth hormone (GH)

regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues


the condition of excessive mammary development in the male

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland

hemoglobin A1c testing

a blood test that measures the average blood glucose level over the previous 3-4 months

home blood glucose monitoring

measures the current blood sugar level


chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands and have specialized functions in regulating the activities of specific cells, organs, or both

human growth hormone

a synthetic version of the growth hormone that is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

stimulates the secretion of the hormones required to maintain pregnancy


characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones


a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland


an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood


the condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands


the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream


the overproduction of the parathyroid hormone, causing the condition known as hypercalcemia


pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the ituitary gland


an imbalance of metabolism caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones


characterized by abnormally low levelsl of calcium in the blood


a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland


an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood


the condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands


caused by an insufficnent or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone


a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial, or complete, loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland


caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as an underactive thyroid


regulates the transport of glucose to body cells and stimulates the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen for storage

insulin shock

caused by very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)


a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)

stimulates ovulation in the female; stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the male

lactogenic hormone (LTH)

stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk

laparoscopic adrenalectomy

a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands


a hormone secreted by adipocytes (fat cells)


the surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland; also used to describe the removal of a lobe of the liver, brain, or lung

luteinizing hormone (LH)

in the female, stimulates ovulation; in the male, stimulates testosterone secretion

melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

increases the production of melanin in melanocytes of the skin


influences the sleep-wakefulness cycles


caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as adult hypothyroidism


secreted by specialized cells of the brain


stimulates the sympathetic nervous system

oral glucose tolerance test

performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia

osteitis fibrosa

a complication of hyperparathyroidism in which bone becomes softened and deformed and may develop cysts

oxytocin (OXT)

stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth. It also causes milk to flow from the mammary glands after childbirth.


a feather-shaped organ located posterior to the stomach that functions as part of both the digestive and the endocrine systems


pain in the pancreas


the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas

pancreatic islets

those parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions


an inflammation of the pancreas

parathyroid glands

embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, works with the hormone calcitonin that is secreted by the thyroid gland to regulate the calcium levels in the blood and tissues

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

works with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues


the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands


a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine

pineal gland

a very small endocrine glands that is located in the central portion o fthe brain


the surgical removal of the pineal gland


a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin; can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle


any disorder of pituitary function

pituitary adenoma

a slow-growing benign tumor of the pituitary gland; functioning pituitary tumors often produce hormones in large and unregulated amounts; nonfunctioning pituitary tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones

pituitary gland

hangs from the infuldibulum below the hypothalamus and functions to secrete hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands


excessive hunger


excessive urination


completes preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy


a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin


the condition of first being capable of reproducing sexually


any one of a large number of hormone-like substances secreted by endocrine glands or artificially produced as medications to relieve swelling and inflammation in conditions such as asthma

synthetic thyroid hormones

administered to replace lost thyroid function


secreted by the testicles, stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics


the surgical removal of the thymus gland


an inflammation of the thymus gland


stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system


located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity

thyroid gland

a butterfly-shaped glands that lies on either side of the larynx, just below the thyroid cartilage

thyroid scan

measures thyroid function

thyroid storm

a relatively rare, lift-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

stimulates the secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland

thyroid-stimulating hormone assay

a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone

thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

regulate the rate of metabolism

Type 1 diabetes

an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells

Type 2 diabetes

an insulin resistance disorder


having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male

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