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119 terms

Medical Terminology, Chapter 13, The Endocrine System

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acromegaly
abnormal enlargement of the extremeties (hands and feet) that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty
Addison's disease
occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
adrenalitis
inflammation of the adrenal glands
adrenocorticotroic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex
aldosterone
regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys
aldosterone (ALD)
aids in regulating the levels of salt and water in the body
aldosteronism
an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone
anabolic steroids
chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone
androgens
influence sex-related characteristics
androgens
hormones that influence sex-related characteristics
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted
antithyroid drug
a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
calcitonin (CAL)
works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues
chemical thyroidectomy
the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells
Conn's syndrome
a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone
corticosteroids
the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
cortisol
regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body; also has an anti-inflammatory action
cortisone
the synethetic equivalent of corticosteroids produced by the body
cretinism
a congenital form of hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome
caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol
diabetes insipidus
caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone
diabetes mellitus
a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
diabetic coma
caused by very high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
diabetic retinopathy
occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causing blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball
electrolytes
mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood
endocrinologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands
endocrinopathy
any disease caused by a disorder of the endocrine system
epinephrine (Epi, EPI)
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system; a synthetic hormone used as a vasoconstrictor to treat conditions such as heart dysrhythmias and asthma attacks
estrogen (E)
develops and maintains the female secondary sex characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle
exophthalmos
an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit
fasting blood sugar test
measures the glucose (blood sugar) levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
in the female, stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova (eggs); in the male, stimulates the production of sperm
fructosamine test
measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks
gamete
a reproductive cell, sperm in the male and ova (eggs) in the female
gestational diabetes
a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies
gigantism
abnormal overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion o fthe growth hormone before puberty
glucagon (GCG)
increases the level of glucose in the bloodstreasm
glucose
blood sugar; the basic form of energy used by the body
glycogen
the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose
goiter
an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland
gonadotropin
any hormone that stimulates the gonads
gonads
ovaries in females and testicles in males; gamete-producing glands
Graves' disease
an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism and is characterized by goiter and/or exophthalmos
growth hormone (GH)
regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
gynecomastia
the condition of excessive mammary development in the male
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland
hemoglobin A1c testing
a blood test that measures the average blood glucose level over the previous 3-4 months
home blood glucose monitoring
measures the current blood sugar level
hormones
chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands and have specialized functions in regulating the activities of specific cells, organs, or both
human growth hormone
a synthetic version of the growth hormone that is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
stimulates the secretion of the hormones required to maintain pregnancy
hypercalcemia
characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones
hypercrinism
a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland
hyperglycemia
an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood
hypergonadism
the condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands
hyperinsulinism
the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream
hyperparathyroidism
the overproduction of the parathyroid hormone, causing the condition known as hypercalcemia
hyperpituitarism
pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the ituitary gland
hyperthyroidism
an imbalance of metabolism caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones
hypocalcemia
characterized by abnormally low levelsl of calcium in the blood
hypocrinism
a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland
hypoglycemia
an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood
hypogonadism
the condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands
hypoparathyroidism
caused by an insufficnent or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone
hypopituitarism
a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial, or complete, loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
hypothyroidism
caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as an underactive thyroid
insulin
regulates the transport of glucose to body cells and stimulates the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen for storage
insulin shock
caused by very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
insulinoma
a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
stimulates ovulation in the female; stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the male
lactogenic hormone (LTH)
stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk
laparoscopic adrenalectomy
a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands
leptin
a hormone secreted by adipocytes (fat cells)
lobectomy
the surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland; also used to describe the removal of a lobe of the liver, brain, or lung
luteinizing hormone (LH)
in the female, stimulates ovulation; in the male, stimulates testosterone secretion
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
increases the production of melanin in melanocytes of the skin
melatonin
influences the sleep-wakefulness cycles
myxedema
caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as adult hypothyroidism
neurohormones
secreted by specialized cells of the brain
norepinephrine
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system
oral glucose tolerance test
performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia
osteitis fibrosa
a complication of hyperparathyroidism in which bone becomes softened and deformed and may develop cysts
oxytocin (OXT)
stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth. It also causes milk to flow from the mammary glands after childbirth.
pancreas
a feather-shaped organ located posterior to the stomach that functions as part of both the digestive and the endocrine systems
pancreatalgia
pain in the pancreas
pancreatectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas
pancreatic islets
those parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions
pancreatitis
an inflammation of the pancreas
parathyroid glands
embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, works with the hormone calcitonin that is secreted by the thyroid gland to regulate the calcium levels in the blood and tissues
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
works with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues
parathyroidectomy
the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands
pheochromocytoma
a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine
pineal gland
a very small endocrine glands that is located in the central portion o fthe brain
pinealectomy
the surgical removal of the pineal gland
pinealoma
a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin; can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle
pituitarism
any disorder of pituitary function
pituitary adenoma
a slow-growing benign tumor of the pituitary gland; functioning pituitary tumors often produce hormones in large and unregulated amounts; nonfunctioning pituitary tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones
pituitary gland
hangs from the infuldibulum below the hypothalamus and functions to secrete hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands
polyphagia
excessive hunger
polyuria
excessive urination
progesterone
completes preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy
prolactinoma
a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin
puberty
the condition of first being capable of reproducing sexually
steroid
any one of a large number of hormone-like substances secreted by endocrine glands or artificially produced as medications to relieve swelling and inflammation in conditions such as asthma
synthetic thyroid hormones
administered to replace lost thyroid function
testosterone
secreted by the testicles, stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics
thymectomy
the surgical removal of the thymus gland
thymitis
an inflammation of the thymus gland
thymosin
stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system
thymus
located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity
thyroid gland
a butterfly-shaped glands that lies on either side of the larynx, just below the thyroid cartilage
thyroid scan
measures thyroid function
thyroid storm
a relatively rare, lift-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates the secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay
a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
regulate the rate of metabolism
Type 1 diabetes
an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells
Type 2 diabetes
an insulin resistance disorder
virile
having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male