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219 terms

Medical Terminology, Chapter 14, The Reproductive Systems

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abortion
the interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable
abruption placentae
an abnormal disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the birth of the fetus
afterbirth
the plancenta expelled after delivery of the newborn
amenorrhea
an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 3 or more months
amniocentesis
a surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid
amnionic fluid
also known as amniotic fluid; the liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating movements
amniotic cavity
the fluid-filled space between the embryo and the amniotic sac
amniotic sac
the innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo in the uterus
andropause
referred to as male menopause; is marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone
anorchism
the absence of one or both testicles
anovulation
the absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected
anteflexion
the normal position of the uterus, where the body of the uterus is bent forward
antepartum
refers to the final state of pregnancy just before the onset of labor
Apgar score
a scale of 1-10 to evaluate a newborn infant's physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth
areola
dark-pigmented area that surrounds the nipple
azoospermia
the absence of sperm in the semen
bacterial vaginosis
a condition in women in which there is an abnormal overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina
balanitis
an inflammation of the glans penis that is usually caused by poor hygiene in men who have not had the foreskin removed by circumcision
Bartholin's glands
produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina
Braxton Hicks contractions
intermittent painless uterine contractions that occur with increasing frequency as the pregnancy progresses
breast augmentation
mammoplasty performed to increase breast size
breast reduction
mammoplasty performed to decrease and reshape excessively large, heavy breasts
breech presentation
one in which the buttocks or feet of the fetus are positioned to enter the birth canal first instead of the head
bulbourethral glands
located just below the prostrate gland; during sexual arousa, these glands secrete a fluid known as pre-ejaculate
caesarean section
the delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterinen walls
castration
the surgical removal or destruction of both testicles
cervical cancer
the second-most common cancer in women and usually affects women between the ages of 45 and 65 years
cervical dysplasia
the growth of abnormal cells in the cervix
cervicitis
an inflammation of the cervix that is usually caused by an infection
cervix
the lower, narrow portion of the uterus that extends into the vagina
Chlamydia
the most commonly reported STD in the US; is highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics
chorion
the thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo
chorionic villus sampling
the examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi
circumcision
the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis
clitoris
an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and the vaginal orifice
coitus
sexual intercourse
colostrum
a specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest
colpopexy
the surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as the abdominal wall
colporrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina
colporrhexis
tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall
colposcopy
the direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina
conception
occurs when a sperm penetrates and fertilizes the descending ovum
conization
the surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen of tissue from the cervix
contraceptive
a measure taken, or a device used, to lessen the likelihood of conception and pregnancy
corpus
the middle portion of the uterus
corpus luteum
secretes the hormone progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle
cryptorchidism
a developmental defect in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend into the normal position in the scrotum
dilation and curettage
a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrium of the uterus is scraped away; also known as a D&C
due date
calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period
dysmenorrhea
pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period
eclampsia
a more serious form of preeclampsia, characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma
ectopic pregnancy
a potentially dangerous condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus
ejaculatory duct
begins at the vas deferens, passes through the prostate glands, and empties into the urethra; a reflex action caused by these ducts causes ejaculation
embryo
the developing child from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy
endocervicitis
an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix
endometrial biopsy
a small amount of the tissue from the lining of the uterus is removed for microscopic examination
endometriosis
a condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity
endometrium
the inner layer of the uterus
endovaginal ultrasound
performed to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding
epididymis
a coiled tube at the supper part of each testicle
epididymitis
inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder
episiorrhaphy
the surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy
episiotomy
a surgical incision made through the perineum to enlarge the vaginal origice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal
fallopian tubes
tubes which extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near, but not attached to, an ovary
fetal monitoring
the use of an electronic device to record the fetal heart rate and the maternal uterine contractions during labor
fetus
the developing child from the 9th week of pregnancy to the time of birth
fibroadenoma
a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast
fibrocysticbreast disease
the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts
fimbriae
the fringed, finger-like extensions of the opening at the end of the fallopian tubes
first trimester screening
performed between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy and involves an ultrasound and a finger stick blood test
follicle
a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum (egg)
foreskin
a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers and protects the glans penis
fraternal twins
result from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells
fundus
the bulging, rounded part of the uterus above the entrance of the fallopian tubes
galactorrhea
the production of breast milk in a women who is not breastfeeding
genital herpes
an STD caused by the herpex simplex virus type 2
genital warts
an STD caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV); highly contagious
genitalia
the organs of reproduction and their associated structures
gestation
the period of development of the child in the mother's uterus; lasts approximately 280 days
glans penis
the head of the penis
gonorrhea
a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
gynecologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system
hemospermia
the presence of blood in the seminal fluid
hormone replacement therapy
the use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin to replace those the body no longer produces during and after perimenopause
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse with an infected partner
hydrocele
a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles
hymen
a mucous membrane that partially covers this opening before a woman has had intercourse
hypermenorrhea
an excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days
hypomenorrhea
an unusually small amount of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period
hysterectomy
the surgical removal of the uterus
hysterosalpingography
a radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes
hysteroscopy
the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes
identical twins
formed by the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm that divides to form two embryos
impotence
the inability of the male to achieve or maintain a penile erection; also known as erectile dysfunction
infertility
the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of regular, unprotected intercourse, or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to live birth
infertility specialist
diagnoses and treats problems associated with conception and maintaining pregnancy
infundibulum
the funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary
intrauterine device
a molded plastic contraceptive inserted through the cervix into the uterus
labia major and labia minora
the vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalis and the urethral meatus
lactation
the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant
lactiferous ducts
milk ducts which carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple
leukorrhea
a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina
lochia
the postpartum vaginal discharge that typically continues for 4-6 weeks after childbirth
low sperm count
a sperm count below 20 million/ml; also known as oligospermia
mammary glands
the milk-producing glands that develop during puberty
mammoplasty
a general term for a cosmetic operation on the breasts
mastalgia
pain in the breast
mastitis
a breast infection that is most frequently caused by bacteria that enter the breast tissue during breastfeeding
mastopexy
mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts ina more elevated position
meconium
the greenish material that collects in the intestine of a fetus and forms the first stools of a newborn
menarche
the beginning of the menstrual function
menometrorrhagia
excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals
menopause
the normal termination of the menstrual function
menstruation
the normal, periodic discharge of the endometrial lining and unfertilized egg from the uterus
metrorrhea
an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus
mons pubis
a rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis
multiparous
a woman who has given birth two or more times
multiples
the term used to describe a birth involving more than two infants
myomectomy
the surgical removal of uterine fibroids
myometrium
the muscular middle layer of uterine tissue
navel
belly button
neonate
newborn infant during the first 4 weeks after birth
neonatologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the newborn
nipple
breast milk flows through the nipple
normal sperm count
20-120 million or more sperm per millileter of semen
nulligravida
a woman who has never been pregnant
nullipara
a women who has never borne a viable child
obstetrician
a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter
oligomenorrhea
the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a women with previously normal periods
oophoritis
inflammation of an ovary
orchidectomy
the surgical removal of one or both testicles
orchiopexy
endoscopic surgery to move an undescended testicle into its normal position in the scrotum
ova
the female gametes; also known as eggs
ovarian cancer
originates within the walls of the ovaries
ovariectomy
the surgical removal of one or both ovaries
ovaries
a pair of small, almond-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen, one on either side of the uterus
ovariorrhexis
the rupture of an ovary
ovulation
the release of a mature egg from a follicle on the surface of the ovary
Papanicolaou test
Pap smear; an exfoliative biopsy for the detection of conditions that can be early indicators of cervical cancer
pediatrician
a physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of children
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
any inflammation of the female reproductive organs that is not associated with surgery or pregnancy
pelvimetry
a radiographic study to measure the dimentions of the pelvis to evaluate its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal
penis
the male sex organ that transports the sperm into the female vagina
perimenopause
the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all
perimetrium
the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus
perineum
the external surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx
Peyronie's disease
a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection; also known as penile curvature
phimosis
a narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted (pulled back) to expose the glans penis
placenta
a temporary organ that forms within the uterus to allow the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother and fetus without allowing maternal blood and fetal blood to mix
placenta previa
the abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus
polycystic ovary syndrome
a condition caused by a hormonal imbalance in which the ovaries are enlarged by the presence of many cysts formed by incompletely developed follicles
polymenorrhea
the occurrence of menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal
postpartum
after childbirth
postpartum depression
a mood disorder characterized by feelings of sadness and the loss of pleasure in normal activities that can occur shortly after giving birth
preeclampsia
a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria
pregnancy
the condition of having a developing child in the uterus
pregnancy test
performed to detect an unusually high level of the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone in either a blood or urine specimen, which is usually an indication of pregnancy
premature ejaculation
a condition in which the male reaches climax too soon, usually before, or shortly after, penetration of the female
premature infant
a fetus born before the 37th week of gestation
premature menopause
a condition in which the ovaries cease functioning before age 40 years due to disease, a hormonal disorder, or surgical removal
premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
a condition associated with severe emotional and physical problems that are closely linked to the menstrual cycle
premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
a group of symptoms experienced by some women within the 2-week period before menstruation
priapism
a painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more but is not accompanied by sexual excitement
primigravida
a woman during her first pregnancy
primipara
a women who has borne one viable child
prostate gland
lies under the bladder and surrounds the end of the urethra in the region where the vas deferens enters the urethra
pruritus vulvae
a condition of severe itching of the external female genitalia
puerperium
the time from the delivery of the placenta through approximately the first 6 weeks after the delivery
pyosalpinx
an accumulation of pus in the fallopian tube
quickening
the first movement of the fetus in the uterus that can be felt by the mother
radical hysterectomy
a procedure that includes the surgical removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, the uterus and cervix, plus nearby lymph nodes; most commonly performed to treat uterine cancer
salpingectomy
the surgical removal of one or both fallopian tubes
salpingitis
an inflammation of a fallopian tube
salpingo-oophorectomy
the surgical removal of a fallopian tube and ovary
scrotum
the saclike structure that surrounds, protects, and supports the testicles
semen
the whitish fluid containing sperm that is ejaculated through the urethra at the peak of male sexual excitement
seminal vesicles
glands that secrete a thick, yellow substance to nourish the sperm cells
seminiferous tubules
location of sperm formation
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
infections that affect both males and females
sperm
the male gametes (reproductive cells)
sperm count
the testing of freshly ejaculated semen to determine the volume plus the number, shape, size, and motility of the sperm
spermatocele
a cyst that develops in the epididymis and is filled with a milky fluid containing sperm
spermatogenesis
the process of sperm formation
sterilization
any procedure rendering an individual (male or female) incapable of reproduction
stillbirth
the birth of a fetus that died before, or during, the delivery
syphilis
an STD caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum; has many symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from other STDs
testicles
the two small, egg-shaped glands that produce the sperm
testicular cancer
the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 34 years
testicular pain
pain in one or both testicles
testicular self-examination
a self-help step in early detection of testicular cancer by detecting limps, swelling, or changes in the skin of the scrotum
testicular torsion
a sharp pain in the scrotum caused by twisting of the vas deferens and blood vessels leading into the testicle
testitis
inflammation of one or both testicles
total hysterectomy
the surgical removal of the uterus and the cervix
trichomoniasis
an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis; also known as trich
tubal ligation
a surgical sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are sealed or cut to prevent sperm from reaching a mature ovum
umbilical cord
the tube that carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients from the placenta to the developing child
urethra
in the male, the urethra passes through the penis to the outside of the body
urologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males
uterine cancer
involves cancerous growth on the linint of the uterus
uterine fibroid
a benign tumor composed of muscle and fibrous tissue that occurs in the wall of the uterus
uterine involution
the return of the uterus to its normal size and former condition after delivery
uterine prolapse
the condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina
uterus
a pear-shaped organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining filled with a rich supply of blood vessels
vagina
the muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body
vaginal candidiasis
a vaginal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans; also known as a yeast infection
vaginal orifice
the exterior opening of the vagina
vaginitis
an inflammation of the lining of the vagina
varicocelectomy
the removal of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele
variocele
a knot of varicose veins in one side of the scrotum
vas deferens
the long, narrow continuations of each epididymis
vasectomy
the male sterilization procedure in which a small portion of the vas deferens is surgically removed
vasovasostomy
vasectomy reversal
VBAC
Vaginal Birth After a Caesarean
vernix
a greasy substance that protects the fetus in utero and can still be present at birth
viable
the fetus when it is capable of living outside the uterus
vulva
consists of the labia, clitoris, Bartholin's glands, and vaginal orifice
vulvitis
an inflammation of the vulva
vulvodynia
a syndrome of unknown cause that is characterized by chronic burning, pain during sexual intercourse, itching, or stinging irritation of the vulva
zygote
the single cell formed that results from the union of sperm and egg; a new life