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the interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable

abruption placentae

an abnormal disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the birth of the fetus


the plancenta expelled after delivery of the newborn


an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 3 or more months


a surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid

amnionic fluid

also known as amniotic fluid; the liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating movements

amniotic cavity

the fluid-filled space between the embryo and the amniotic sac

amniotic sac

the innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo in the uterus


referred to as male menopause; is marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone


the absence of one or both testicles


the absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected


the normal position of the uterus, where the body of the uterus is bent forward


refers to the final state of pregnancy just before the onset of labor

Apgar score

a scale of 1-10 to evaluate a newborn infant's physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth


dark-pigmented area that surrounds the nipple


the absence of sperm in the semen

bacterial vaginosis

a condition in women in which there is an abnormal overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina


an inflammation of the glans penis that is usually caused by poor hygiene in men who have not had the foreskin removed by circumcision

Bartholin's glands

produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina

Braxton Hicks contractions

intermittent painless uterine contractions that occur with increasing frequency as the pregnancy progresses

breast augmentation

mammoplasty performed to increase breast size

breast reduction

mammoplasty performed to decrease and reshape excessively large, heavy breasts

breech presentation

one in which the buttocks or feet of the fetus are positioned to enter the birth canal first instead of the head

bulbourethral glands

located just below the prostrate gland; during sexual arousa, these glands secrete a fluid known as pre-ejaculate

caesarean section

the delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterinen walls


the surgical removal or destruction of both testicles

cervical cancer

the second-most common cancer in women and usually affects women between the ages of 45 and 65 years

cervical dysplasia

the growth of abnormal cells in the cervix


an inflammation of the cervix that is usually caused by an infection


the lower, narrow portion of the uterus that extends into the vagina


the most commonly reported STD in the US; is highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics


the thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo

chorionic villus sampling

the examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi


the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis


an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and the vaginal orifice


sexual intercourse


a specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest


the surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as the abdominal wall


the surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina


tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall


the direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina


occurs when a sperm penetrates and fertilizes the descending ovum


the surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen of tissue from the cervix


a measure taken, or a device used, to lessen the likelihood of conception and pregnancy


the middle portion of the uterus

corpus luteum

secretes the hormone progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle


a developmental defect in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend into the normal position in the scrotum

dilation and curettage

a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrium of the uterus is scraped away; also known as a D&C

due date

calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period


pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period


a more serious form of preeclampsia, characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma

ectopic pregnancy

a potentially dangerous condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus

ejaculatory duct

begins at the vas deferens, passes through the prostate glands, and empties into the urethra; a reflex action caused by these ducts causes ejaculation


the developing child from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy


an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix

endometrial biopsy

a small amount of the tissue from the lining of the uterus is removed for microscopic examination


a condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity


the inner layer of the uterus

endovaginal ultrasound

performed to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding


a coiled tube at the supper part of each testicle


inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder


the surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy


a surgical incision made through the perineum to enlarge the vaginal origice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal

fallopian tubes

tubes which extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near, but not attached to, an ovary

fetal monitoring

the use of an electronic device to record the fetal heart rate and the maternal uterine contractions during labor


the developing child from the 9th week of pregnancy to the time of birth


a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast

fibrocysticbreast disease

the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts


the fringed, finger-like extensions of the opening at the end of the fallopian tubes

first trimester screening

performed between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy and involves an ultrasound and a finger stick blood test


a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum (egg)


a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers and protects the glans penis

fraternal twins

result from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells


the bulging, rounded part of the uterus above the entrance of the fallopian tubes


the production of breast milk in a women who is not breastfeeding

genital herpes

an STD caused by the herpex simplex virus type 2

genital warts

an STD caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV); highly contagious


the organs of reproduction and their associated structures


the period of development of the child in the mother's uterus; lasts approximately 280 days

glans penis

the head of the penis


a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae


a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system


the presence of blood in the seminal fluid

hormone replacement therapy

the use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin to replace those the body no longer produces during and after perimenopause

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse with an infected partner


a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles


a mucous membrane that partially covers this opening before a woman has had intercourse


an excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days


an unusually small amount of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period


the surgical removal of the uterus


a radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes


the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes

identical twins

formed by the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm that divides to form two embryos


the inability of the male to achieve or maintain a penile erection; also known as erectile dysfunction


the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of regular, unprotected intercourse, or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to live birth

infertility specialist

diagnoses and treats problems associated with conception and maintaining pregnancy


the funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary

intrauterine device

a molded plastic contraceptive inserted through the cervix into the uterus

labia major and labia minora

the vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalis and the urethral meatus


the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant

lactiferous ducts

milk ducts which carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple


a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina


the postpartum vaginal discharge that typically continues for 4-6 weeks after childbirth

low sperm count

a sperm count below 20 million/ml; also known as oligospermia

mammary glands

the milk-producing glands that develop during puberty


a general term for a cosmetic operation on the breasts


pain in the breast


a breast infection that is most frequently caused by bacteria that enter the breast tissue during breastfeeding


mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts ina more elevated position


the greenish material that collects in the intestine of a fetus and forms the first stools of a newborn


the beginning of the menstrual function


excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals


the normal termination of the menstrual function


the normal, periodic discharge of the endometrial lining and unfertilized egg from the uterus


an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus

mons pubis

a rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis


a woman who has given birth two or more times


the term used to describe a birth involving more than two infants


the surgical removal of uterine fibroids


the muscular middle layer of uterine tissue


belly button


newborn infant during the first 4 weeks after birth


a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the newborn


breast milk flows through the nipple

normal sperm count

20-120 million or more sperm per millileter of semen


a woman who has never been pregnant


a women who has never borne a viable child


a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter


the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a women with previously normal periods


inflammation of an ovary


the surgical removal of one or both testicles


endoscopic surgery to move an undescended testicle into its normal position in the scrotum


the female gametes; also known as eggs

ovarian cancer

originates within the walls of the ovaries


the surgical removal of one or both ovaries


a pair of small, almond-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen, one on either side of the uterus


the rupture of an ovary


the release of a mature egg from a follicle on the surface of the ovary

Papanicolaou test

Pap smear; an exfoliative biopsy for the detection of conditions that can be early indicators of cervical cancer


a physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of children

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

any inflammation of the female reproductive organs that is not associated with surgery or pregnancy


a radiographic study to measure the dimentions of the pelvis to evaluate its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal


the male sex organ that transports the sperm into the female vagina


the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all


the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus


the external surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx

Peyronie's disease

a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection; also known as penile curvature


a narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted (pulled back) to expose the glans penis


a temporary organ that forms within the uterus to allow the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother and fetus without allowing maternal blood and fetal blood to mix

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