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Genetic Engineering Test Study Guide
Study guide for the upcoming genetic engineering test.
Terms in this set (51)
Crossing organisms with desired traits to produce the next generation
Crossing dissimilar organisms to get the best of both
Continually breeding individuals with similar characteristics
The process of manipulating genes for practical purposes
DNA made from two or more different organisms
An agent that is used to carry the gene of interest into another cell. Most common are viruses, yeast, and plasmids
Circular bacterial DNA. One of the most common vectors. Can easily incorporate foreign DNA, are readily taken up by bacterial cells, can act as vectors, and are ideal for gene cloning.
The production of multiple identical copies of a gene-carrying piece of DNA
"scissors." Bacterial enzymes which cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences.
Pieces of DNA that are produced by restriction enzymes
Words that are spelled the same forward as backwards (like racecar.) Ex: GAATTC & CTTAAG
DNA "glue" or "tape." Connects the DNA pieces into continuous strands by forming bonds between adjacent nucleotides
Animals that have foreign DNA in their cells
The regrowth of lost body parts. Occurs, for example, in the regrowth of the legs of salamanders
Involves replacing nuclei of egg cells with nuclei from differentiated cells. Has been used to clone a variety of animals
Produces embryonic stem cells, not an organism
A technique that uses an electric field within a gel to separate molecules by their size
A pattern of dark bands made when an individual's DNA restriction fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis
Are extraordinary because they can divide and make identical copies of themselves over and over again (self-renewal.) They can either remain unspecialized with no 'specific' function or become specialized (differentiated) with the potential to produce over 200 different types of cells in the body
Embryonic stem cells
First main type of stem cell. From blastocysts left over from in-vitro fertilization in the laboratory, or from aborted fetuses
Adult stem cells
Second main type of stem cell. Stem cells have been found in the blood, bone marrow, liver, kidney, cornea, dental pulp, umbilical cord, brain, skin, muscle, salivary gland, etc.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPs)
Third main type of stem cell. A type of pluripotent stem cell artificially derived from a non-pluripotent cell, typically an adult somatic cell, by inducing a "forced" expression of certain genes
What are the three main types of stem cells?
Embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent.
(aka omnipotent) Early embryonic cells. Stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types. Can construct a complete, viable organism produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell and first few divisions. Can differentiate into the widest variety of cells
Which type of stem cell can differentiate into the widest variety?
Which type of stem cell are early embryonic cells?
Later embryonic cells. The descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells, i.e. cells derived from any of the three gene layers.
Which type of stem cell can differentiate into nearly all cells?
Which type of stem cell are later embryonic cells?
Adult cells. Stem cells can differentiate into a number of cells, but only those of a closely related family of cells.
Which type of stem cell are adult cells?
Which type of stem cell can differentiate into a number of cells, but only those of a closely related family of cells?
What is the number one thing genetic engineering may involve?
Building recombinant DNA.
Describe the steps in a genetic engineering experiment.
1. The DNA from the organism containing the gene of interest and the vector are cut by restriction enzymes.
2. Recombinant DNA is produced
3. Gene cloning
4. Cells undergo selection and then are screened
How is recombinant DNA produced?
By combining a bacterial plasmid and the gene of interest.
What do restriction enzymes look for when cutting the gene of interest and the vector?
What are four benefits to genetically modifying crops?
The crops will be drought resistant, herbicide resistant (roundup ready), pest resistant (BT crops), and more nutritious (golden rice.)
What are three potential problems of genetically modifying crops?
Allergies, cross contamination with non-GMO's (genetically modified organisms), and possible effects on humans and animals.
What are added to transgenic cows and why?
Human genes, so human proteins are in their milk.
What are two things cloning animals is good for?
Sperm producers, like the MN Zoo bull, and it can create herds of animals with medically useful properties.
Name four facts about differentiated cells.
They all contain a complete genome, have the potential to express all of an organisms' genes, differentiated plant cells can develop into whole new organisms, and they can produce hundreds of thousands of clones.
What kind of mammals have been produced using reproductive cloning?
Farm animals, control animals for experiments, and rare animals in danger of extinction.
Name three facts about animal cloning.
It has heightened speculation about human cloning, is very difficult and inefficient, and critics raise practical and ethical objections to human cloning.
What kind of cells are easiest to clone and why?
Plant cells, because they are not as differentiated as animal or human.
What kind of charge does DNA have and where will it go in gel electrophoresis?
DNA has a negative charge, so it will go to the positive side.
What are DNA fragments visualized as in gel electrophoresis?
"Bands" on the gel.
True or false: shorter fragments are lower in the gel and longer fragments are higher in gel electrophoresis.
What is a polymerase chain reaction (pcr), what is its primary function, and what does it use and where is this found?
A technique to make an exponential amount of copies of DNA fragments. Its primary function is to exponentially amplify DNA. It uses taq DNA polymerase from bacteria in hypothermal vents.
Name three things currently being treated with stem cells.
Parkinson's Disease, leukemia (using bone marrow transplants,) and skin grafts resulting from severe burns.
What does stem cell therapy have the potential to do?
Regenerate tissues and organs, and cure diseases like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, etc.
Where do most adult stem cells come from?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Chapter 12 and 13 - Biology
Chapter 12: DNA and RNA - Vocabulary (For Lindsay)
Chapter 11 - Introduction to Genetics
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