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3.1 the polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding
Terms in this set (20)
Life on Earth began in ___ and evolved there for 3 billion years before spreading onto land.
cells are about ___% water
___ of Earth′s surface is submerged in water
solid, liquid, and gas
Water is the only common substance to exist in the natural environment in all three physical states of matter: ___
Water is so common that it is easy to overlook the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of ___, we can trace water′s unique behavior to the structure and interactions of its molecules.
Studied in isolation, the water molecule is deceptively simple. Its two hydrogen atoms are joined to the oxygen atom by ___ bonds
Because oxygen is more ___ than hydrogen, the electrons of the polar bonds spend more time closer to the oxygen atom. In other words, the bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are ___ bonds.
The water molecule, shaped something like a wide V, is a ___ molecule, meaning that opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges:
The oxygen region of the molecule has a partial ___ charge (δ−), and the hydrogens have a partial ___charge (δ+)
The anomalous properties of water arise from ___ between these polar molecules. The attraction is ___; the slightly positive hydrogen of one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative oxygen of a nearby molecule
two water molecules are held together by a ___ bond
multiple hydrogen bonds;
Although the arrangement of molecules in a sample of liquid water is constantly changing, at any given moment, many of the molecules are linked by ___ bonds. The extraordinary qualities of water are ___ resulting from the hydrogen bonding that orders molecules into a higher level of structural organization.
At any instant in liquid water at 37ºC (human body temperature), about 15% of the molecules are bonded to ___ partners in short-lived clusters.
electronegativity is a measure of an atom's ability to attract a charge
What is electronegativity?
Electronegativity is due to the amount of protons in a nucleus being unshielded due to an unfilled electron shell
What is electronegativity due to?
What are the electronegativities of oxygen and of hydrogen?
Since the atoms in a water molecule do not have equal ability to attract charges, we say that a water molecule has a dipole moment. That means oxygen has a little more electronegativity than hydrogen.
What is a dipole moment?
That "partial" negative charge on oxygen makes it want to form a strong dipole-dipole attraction called a hydrogen bond with the positive partial charge between the two hydrogen atoms on another water molecule. The result is water molecules like to cling together.
Why do water molecules tend to cling together?
Liquid water "sticks" together in water drops because of the partial negative charge on the oxygen end of the molecule and the partial positive charge on the hydrogen end of another molecule.
Why does liquid water "stick" together in water drops?
If you add enough heat energy, the hydrogen bond breaks apart, and steam (water molecules in the gas phase) occur.
What causes steam to occur?
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