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PSY 100 Exam 1 Chapters 1-4

After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates

hindsight bias

When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne's reaction best illustrates

critical thinking.

Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of

a hypothesis.

Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter using?

naturalistic observation

A negative correlation between people's work-related stress and their marital happiness would indicate that

higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of work-related stress.

Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that

correlation does not prove causation.

Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?

the experiment

In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to

placebo effects.

In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the

dependent variable

To assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable consisted of

level of sexual stimulation.

One person in a 10-person group is 10 times older than anyone else in the group. With respect to age, it is MOST likely that the majority of group members are younger than the group's


The ________ is a measure of ________.

median; central tendency

The maximum height of a normal curve corresponds to the ________ of a normal distribution.


Random samples provide ________ estimates of population averages if the samples have small ________.

good; standard deviations

Ethical principles developed by psychologists urge investigators to

treat information about individual research participants confidentially.

Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates


Psychological theories

do all of these things: organize scientific observations, explain observed facts, generate hypotheses.

Which research method runs the greatest risk of collecting evidence that may be unrepresentative of what is generally true?

the case study

Every twenty-fifth person who subscribed to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine's contents. The researchers were applying the technique known as

random sampling.

A correlation of +0.70 between children's physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates that

higher levels of popularity among your peers is associated with greater physical height in children.

Surveys are most likely to indicate that reckless behavior and self-control are

negatively correlated.

A tendency to notice and remember instances in which our premonitions of disaster are subsequently followed by harmful events is most likely to contribute to

illusory correlations.

To test the potential effect of hunger on taste sensitivity, groups of research participants are deprived of food for differing lengths of time before they engage in a taste-sensitivity test. This research is an example of

an experiment.

Researchers control factors that might influence a dependent variable by means of

random assignment.

In a study of factors that might affect memory, research participants were assigned to drink either an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic beverage prior to completing a memory test. Those who drank the nonalcoholic beverage were assigned to the ________ group.


In an experimental study of the effects of dieting on weight loss, dieting would be the

independent variable.

Ahmed has five sisters who are 3, 3, 5, 9, and 10 years of age. The number "5" represents the ________ of the sisters' ages.


The ________ can be a particularly misleading indication of what is average for a ________ distribution of scores.

mean; skewed

The ________ is a measure of ________.

standard deviation; variation

Differences between two samples are LEAST likely to be statistically significant if

the samples are small and the standard deviations of the samples are large.

The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are


Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called


Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the

synaptic gaps.

Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n)

ACh antagonist.

In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.

raises; dilates

While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different

neural networks.

The endocrine system consists of


Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?

a PET scan

Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?


After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her


The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the


Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?

frontal lobes

The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as

association areas.

The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of


Speech is processed primarily in the right hemisphere by the ________ of those who are left-handed and by the ________ of those who are right-handed.

minority; minority

An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.

away from; toward

The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by flooding synapses with


Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.

low; low

A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n)


The peripheral nervous system consists of

sensory and motor neurons.

The autonomic nervous system most directly controls

bladder contractions.

Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron's experience is most indicative of a

severed spinal cord.

The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels.

raises; raises

To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n)


Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to


Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?


The visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobes.

Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by


Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates


Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.

left cerebral hemisphere

The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with

unconscious mental activity.

Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also talking on a cellphone. This best illustrates the impact of

selective attention.

Staying up especially late on weekends is most likely to have an influence on

the circadian rhythm.

Sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with ________ sleep.

Stage 4

A recurring sleep stage during which most vivid dreams commonly occur is known as ________ sleep.


Narcolepsy is associated with a relative absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces


Which of the following sleep disorders is most strongly associated with obesity?

sleep apnea

The distinction between manifest content and latent content is central to ________ theory of dreams.

Freud's wish-fulfillment

Research most clearly disputes claims of

age regression.

Dissociation has been used as an explanation for

hypnotic pain relief.

Social influence explanations and divided-consciousness explanations are converging toward a unified account of


As drug users experience neuroadaptation, they demonstrate signs of


Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by

decreasing REM sleep.

Nicotine triggers a(n) ________ in anxiety and a(n) ________ in mental alertness.

decrease; increase

The experience of vivid geometric images and dreamlike scenes is most likely to be triggered by


A car driver's ability to navigate a familiar route while carrying on an animated conversation with passengers best illustrates the importance of

dual processing.

Selective attention is best illustrated by

change blindness.

The five-stage sleep cycle provides an example of

biological rhythms.

Bright light inhibits our feelings of sleepiness by influencing the production of


People who claim to have been abducted by space aliens-often shortly after going to bed-commonly recall being floated off their beds. It is most likely that they have incorporated ________ into their memories.

hypnagogic sensations

The large, slow brain waves associated with Stage 4 sleep are called

delta waves.

Chronic sleep deprivation is most likely to contribute to

suppression of the immune system.

Those who complain of insomnia typically _______ how long it actually takes them to fall asleep and ________ how long they actually slept.

overestimate; underestimate

Which sleep disorder is most likely to be accompanied by sleepwalking and sleeptalking?

night terrors

The activation-synthesis theory provides a physiological explanation for


In an experiment, hypnotized subjects are told to scratch their ear if they hear the word psychology mentioned later. The fact that they do so only if they think the experiment is still under way most clearly supports the theory that hypnosis involves


The experience of physical pain following discontinued use of a psychoactive drug best illustrates


Which of the following psychoactive drugs produces the quickest and most powerful rush of euphoria?


Dr. Brooks seeks to account for the substance abuse of her therapy clients in terms of their abusive home environments, their limited sense of life purpose, and the altered functioning of their neurotransmitter systems. Dr. Brooks is most clearly using a(n) ________ approach to understanding addictive behaviors.


Hallucinations similar to those that accompany the near-death experience can be produced by

oxygen deprivation.

An organism's complete set of genetic instructions is called the


Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are

more similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.

Adoptive parents are LEAST likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.

personality traits

Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the importance of


In emphasizing that heredity's effects on behavior depend on a person's home environment, psychologists are highlighting the importance of

nature-nurture interactions.

Which of the following is a major source of genetic diversity?


The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of

natural selection.

It has been suggested that older men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates

an evolutionary perspective.

Premature babies are especially likely to gain weight if stimulated by

touch and massage.

At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing


Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value


Over the last century, Western parents have placed ________ priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and ________ priority on teaching them loyalty to their country.

decreasing; decreasing

Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their

social relationships.

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called

gender typing.

Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender


Studies of the relative impact of nature and nurture on human differences in aggressiveness best illustrate the research efforts of

behavior geneticists.

Chromosomes are composed of

deoxyribonucleic acid.

Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. This best illustrates the influence of ________ on development.

prenatal environments

Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are

fraternal twins who were raised apart.

Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same home.

religious beliefs

Heritability refers to the extent to which trait variations among individuals are attributable to their differing


Identifying some of the specific genes that contribute to alcohol dependence would be of most direct interest to

molecular geneticists.

Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to

genetic predispositions.

Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. To avoid overestimating the impact of peer pressure on teens' smoking habits, it would make the most sense to consider the impact of

smoking preferences on friendship choices.

By inventing customs and passing them on to their peers and offspring, chimpanzees exhibit the rudiments of


The dramatic increase in Americans' premarital sexual activity over the past half-century best illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by


Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with


A single ________ on the ________ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.

gene; Y

In the United States 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of

gender roles.

Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates the impact of

gender schemas.

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