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120 terms

PSY 100 Exam 1 Chapters 1-4

PSY 100 Exam 1 Chapters 1-4
STUDY
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After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates
hindsight bias
When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne's reaction best illustrates
critical thinking.
Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of
a hypothesis.
Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter using?
naturalistic observation
A negative correlation between people's work-related stress and their marital happiness would indicate that
higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of work-related stress.
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that
correlation does not prove causation.
Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?
the experiment
In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to
placebo effects.
In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the
dependent variable
To assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable consisted of
level of sexual stimulation.
One person in a 10-person group is 10 times older than anyone else in the group. With respect to age, it is MOST likely that the majority of group members are younger than the group's
mean.
The ________ is a measure of ________.
median; central tendency
The maximum height of a normal curve corresponds to the ________ of a normal distribution.
mean
Random samples provide ________ estimates of population averages if the samples have small ________.
good; standard deviations
Ethical principles developed by psychologists urge investigators to
treat information about individual research participants confidentially.
Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates
overconfidence
Psychological theories
do all of these things: organize scientific observations, explain observed facts, generate hypotheses.
Which research method runs the greatest risk of collecting evidence that may be unrepresentative of what is generally true?
the case study
Every twenty-fifth person who subscribed to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine's contents. The researchers were applying the technique known as
random sampling.
A correlation of +0.70 between children's physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates that
higher levels of popularity among your peers is associated with greater physical height in children.
Surveys are most likely to indicate that reckless behavior and self-control are
negatively correlated.
A tendency to notice and remember instances in which our premonitions of disaster are subsequently followed by harmful events is most likely to contribute to
illusory correlations.
To test the potential effect of hunger on taste sensitivity, groups of research participants are deprived of food for differing lengths of time before they engage in a taste-sensitivity test. This research is an example of
an experiment.
Researchers control factors that might influence a dependent variable by means of
random assignment.
In a study of factors that might affect memory, research participants were assigned to drink either an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic beverage prior to completing a memory test. Those who drank the nonalcoholic beverage were assigned to the ________ group.
control
In an experimental study of the effects of dieting on weight loss, dieting would be the
independent variable.
Ahmed has five sisters who are 3, 3, 5, 9, and 10 years of age. The number "5" represents the ________ of the sisters' ages.
median
The ________ can be a particularly misleading indication of what is average for a ________ distribution of scores.
mean; skewed
The ________ is a measure of ________.
standard deviation; variation
Differences between two samples are LEAST likely to be statistically significant if
the samples are small and the standard deviations of the samples are large.
The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are
interneurons
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called
endorphins
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the
synaptic gaps.
Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n)
ACh antagonist.
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.
raises; dilates
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different
neural networks.
The endocrine system consists of
glands
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
a PET scan
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
brainstem
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her
cerebellum.
The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the
hypothalamus.
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?
frontal lobes
The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as
association areas.
The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of
plasticity.
Speech is processed primarily in the right hemisphere by the ________ of those who are left-handed and by the ________ of those who are right-handed.
minority; minority
An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.
away from; toward
The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by flooding synapses with
ACh.
Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.
low; low
A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n)
agonist.
The peripheral nervous system consists of
sensory and motor neurons.
The autonomic nervous system most directly controls
bladder contractions.
Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron's experience is most indicative of a
severed spinal cord.
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels.
raises; raises
To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n)
EEG.
Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to
alcoholism.
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
frontal
The visual cortex is located in the
occipital lobes.
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by
irritability.
Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates
plasticity
Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
left cerebral hemisphere
The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with
unconscious mental activity.
Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also talking on a cellphone. This best illustrates the impact of
selective attention.
Staying up especially late on weekends is most likely to have an influence on
the circadian rhythm.
Sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with ________ sleep.
Stage 4
A recurring sleep stage during which most vivid dreams commonly occur is known as ________ sleep.
REM
Narcolepsy is associated with a relative absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces
orexin.
Which of the following sleep disorders is most strongly associated with obesity?
sleep apnea
The distinction between manifest content and latent content is central to ________ theory of dreams.
Freud's wish-fulfillment
Research most clearly disputes claims of
age regression.
Dissociation has been used as an explanation for
hypnotic pain relief.
Social influence explanations and divided-consciousness explanations are converging toward a unified account of
hypnosis.
As drug users experience neuroadaptation, they demonstrate signs of
tolerance.
Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by
decreasing REM sleep.
Nicotine triggers a(n) ________ in anxiety and a(n) ________ in mental alertness.
decrease; increase
The experience of vivid geometric images and dreamlike scenes is most likely to be triggered by
LSD.
A car driver's ability to navigate a familiar route while carrying on an animated conversation with passengers best illustrates the importance of
dual processing.
Selective attention is best illustrated by
change blindness.
The five-stage sleep cycle provides an example of
biological rhythms.
Bright light inhibits our feelings of sleepiness by influencing the production of
melatonin.
People who claim to have been abducted by space aliens-often shortly after going to bed-commonly recall being floated off their beds. It is most likely that they have incorporated ________ into their memories.
hypnagogic sensations
The large, slow brain waves associated with Stage 4 sleep are called
delta waves.
Chronic sleep deprivation is most likely to contribute to
suppression of the immune system.
Those who complain of insomnia typically _______ how long it actually takes them to fall asleep and ________ how long they actually slept.
overestimate; underestimate
Which sleep disorder is most likely to be accompanied by sleepwalking and sleeptalking?
night terrors
The activation-synthesis theory provides a physiological explanation for
dreaming
In an experiment, hypnotized subjects are told to scratch their ear if they hear the word psychology mentioned later. The fact that they do so only if they think the experiment is still under way most clearly supports the theory that hypnosis involves
role-playing.
The experience of physical pain following discontinued use of a psychoactive drug best illustrates
withdrawal.
Which of the following psychoactive drugs produces the quickest and most powerful rush of euphoria?
cocaine
Dr. Brooks seeks to account for the substance abuse of her therapy clients in terms of their abusive home environments, their limited sense of life purpose, and the altered functioning of their neurotransmitter systems. Dr. Brooks is most clearly using a(n) ________ approach to understanding addictive behaviors.
biopsychosocial
Hallucinations similar to those that accompany the near-death experience can be produced by
oxygen deprivation.
An organism's complete set of genetic instructions is called the
genome
Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are
more similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.
Adoptive parents are LEAST likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.
personality traits
Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the importance of
temperament.
In emphasizing that heredity's effects on behavior depend on a person's home environment, psychologists are highlighting the importance of
nature-nurture interactions.
Which of the following is a major source of genetic diversity?
mutations
The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of
natural selection.
It has been suggested that older men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates
an evolutionary perspective.
Premature babies are especially likely to gain weight if stimulated by
touch and massage.
At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing
norms.
Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value
collectivism.
Over the last century, Western parents have placed ________ priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and ________ priority on teaching them loyalty to their country.
decreasing; decreasing
Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their
social relationships.
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called
gender typing.
Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender
schemas.
Studies of the relative impact of nature and nurture on human differences in aggressiveness best illustrate the research efforts of
behavior geneticists.
Chromosomes are composed of
deoxyribonucleic acid.
Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. This best illustrates the influence of ________ on development.
prenatal environments
Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are
fraternal twins who were raised apart.
Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same home.
religious beliefs
Heritability refers to the extent to which trait variations among individuals are attributable to their differing
genes.
Identifying some of the specific genes that contribute to alcohol dependence would be of most direct interest to
molecular geneticists.
Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to
genetic predispositions.
Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. To avoid overestimating the impact of peer pressure on teens' smoking habits, it would make the most sense to consider the impact of
smoking preferences on friendship choices.
By inventing customs and passing them on to their peers and offspring, chimpanzees exhibit the rudiments of
culture.
The dramatic increase in Americans' premarital sexual activity over the past half-century best illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by
norms.
Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with
collectivism.
A single ________ on the ________ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.
gene; Y
In the United States 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of
gender roles.
Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates the impact of
gender schemas.