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Global geography exam 1
Terms in this set (106)
What country was the focal point of the "Great War of Africa"?
DR of congo
What is the significance of renaming in terms of post-colonial Africa?
renaming colonies gave people power and general world recognition
For what reason(s) does the Democratic Republic of the Congo refuse to grant independence to Katanga province?
it is a major producer of diamonds, copper, and other natural resources
Thanks to its location on the Red Sea, which ancient nation of Africa was once a vital part of the global economy?
What importance did the Mali Kingdom city of Timbuktu serve during pre-colonial Africa?
Education and trading center. Timbuktu had salt.
Though short-lived, which southern African kingdom fought against the British and the Dutch and whose defeat essentially marked the end the major African nations?
the Zulu Kingdom
By total number of countries, which language is the most common official language in Africa?
What language family is known for its clicks, and is theorized as possibly being among the first languages of the world?
How does the geography of language families in South Africa reflect the population geography of the country?
Know the basic geography of religion in Africa.
Who are Falashas?
small group of African Jews, discriminated against in Ethiopia
How did Hinduism become the dominant religion of the island state of Mauritius?
the british took control and they needed labor, so they brought indian workers with them
What factors prevented Europe from conquering Africa until the 1800s, which in turn kept Africa generally isolated and "remote"?
Europe would not go deep into Africa because Kingdoms fought back and because of the diseases in Africa
Generally speaking, how did slavery in Africa differ from the forms utilized in the Atlantic region?
In Africa slaves were servants and lived in houses and were treated better
In Americas slaves were treated poorly and had hard labor in the fields
Which two countries were founded as states for freed slaves?
Libia: founded by the United States
Sierra Leone: founded by British
What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference (1884)?
determine how to divide Africa among european powers
In what way does post-colonialism compare to the "white flight" phenomenon witnessed in many urban areas in the United States?
wealthy ppl left city and moved to suburb. take money out of city to fund suburb
What was the primary cause for the end of Portugal's colonial empire?
Carnation Revolution in Portugal
Other than the Soviet Union, which other outside country supported the MPLA during the Angolan Civil War?
What territory of Angola, which is home to much of the country's oil, has sought independence?
How has Mozambique's post-independence era differed from that of Angola?
Mozambique was able to develop its manufacturing sector of their economy
Which country's war of independence marked the beginning of the end of French African colonies?
Though the global leader in cocoa production, why have some called for the boycott of chocolate originating from Cote d'Ivoire?
Of the former colonizing countries, which one is still directly involved in its former colonies, often sending its military to countries such as Niger, Mali, and Chad?
Why is Ethiopia held by some as a symbol of African pride and resistance?
it was never colonized and defeated Italy.
Based on the Ethiopian flag, what three-color scheme is mimicked by many independent African countries, a color pattern that is also used by the Pan-African movement?
green, yellow, and red
Why is Somalia considered to be a "failed state"?
has territory but doesn't fit country. doesn't have functioning government, doesn't have control over its own country, doesn't have economy. failed state and isn't italys fault. only country recognized its independence and it was itself.
Differing from tension in countries such as Nigeria and Rwanda, what is the primary source of division and conflict in Somalia?
90% one ethnicity, might be same but problem is different clans that causes conflict.
How has Ghana worked to diversify its economy?
Ecotourism. focusing on different economic activities
Which mainland African country is the region's leader in per capita income, with an average of $21,263?
What is the "House of Chiefs"?
made up of 35 people, 12 of the people come from all different ethnic group
Despite immense diamond wealth and "upper middle class" status, which county is heavily impacted by the spread of HIV?
Diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and river blindness are predominantly found in which physical region of Africa?
Tropical areas of central Africa
Differing from its origin, the 2014 Ebola outbreak was concentrated in which part of Africa?
Although all of Africa is negatively impacted by the spread of HIV, which subregion is the hardest hit by the disease with some countries possessing prevalence rates over 15 percent?
What best explains the urban-rural geography of HIV in Africa?
If a small village finds out that you have HIV prevalence you will be kicked out and forced to go to the city. More Urban. More people so better chance of getting it.
Why did Robert Mugabe's land redistribution program in Zimbabwe ultimately fail?
Ruler, Robert Mugabe, gave farm land to his friends, instead of people who needed it most. Money was worthless (hyper-inflation) and no funding
What geographic restriction has made it difficult for Chad and Central African Republic to prosper economically?
do not have direct roots to sea
Because of its formation as the core of the ancient Gondwanaland supercontinent, what physical geographic feature tends to be relatively absent in Africa?
Based on plate tectonic theory, which type of boundary is primarily found around the African plate?
what are the three main rivers in Africa?
Nile, Congo, Zambezi
longest river, more important to civilization on the eastern sider
Central Africa's major river, largest river in Africa, second largest river in the world
primary river of Southern Africa, flows into the Indian Ocean, home to Victoria Falls
What is the principle cause for the border dispute between Malawi and Tanzania?
over the ownership of Lake Nyasa.
Which of the African Great Lakes is NOT a rift lake?
The Malagasy language of Madagascar is related to languages located in which part of the world?
been more influenced by southeast Asia (language) instead of Africa
What is the Sahel?
Transition zone between the rainforest and desert closer to the steppe climate
What climatological process creates the Namib Desert, one of the driest deserts in the world
cold ocean current. comes of the coast and creates cold area and get no clouds and no rain
What is apartheid?
series of acts and policies that was used to separate the ppl in south Africa.
dictated where you were born, where you went to school, where you went to work, where you were married, and where you died.
What are "homelands"?
Made in order for the government to help separate ethnic groups
Which ethnic group in South Africa proposed creating an independent homeland known as "Volkstaat"?
Know the three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria, including geographic concentration and characteristics.
Hausa: the ones in the north. dominates the northern part. the real difference is religion, they are muslim.
yoruba: in the southwest. political power.
Igbo: economic power.
* 75% of all Nigerians make up these ethnic groups.
the ones in the north. dominates the northern part. the real difference is religion, they are muslim.
in the southwest. political power.
What is Boko Haram?
An extremist group that has many attacks in northeast Nigeria
radical islamic group. causing problems for 6-7 years now. their idea is to implement islamic law over ever muslim in Nigeria. they were taking away muslim girls and wanted the girls to be more radicalized instead of these girls who were trying to get educated and that sort of thing.
What is the primary cause for the current unrest in Burundi, which has in turn reignited historical ethnic tension?
president can only serve two consecutive terms and president tried to do 3 terms and that is why the turmoil is happening in Burundi.
What is the primary difference between the ethnic groups Hutu and Tutsi?
Hutu: Majority. farmers
Tutsi: minority. nomads
same group just different lifestyles
Spillover from the conflict in Rwanda led to unrest in eastern Zaire, eventually leading the country's government to be overthrown and the country was renamed. What is Zaire known as today?
DR of Congo
Why is it problematic to equate Arabs and Muslims?
islam is a religion and arab is a ethnic group. Stereotype that anyone who is brown skinned is muslim. not true. most of muslim ppl do not live in middle east.
Which mountain range is the primary cause for creating the Sahara?
As discussed in class, what is notable about the Empty Quarter?
borders were drawn at 2001 bc of 9/11. one of the last places to get borders drawn. no one lives here.
Which mountain range, which is also an earthquake zone, is an important economic region of Iran, serving as the focal point of the country's agricultural and petroleum industries?
The Southeastern Anatolian Project was a modernization program in which country, a country that also changed its language's script from Arabic-based to Roman-based?
focused on turkey
What is a qanat?
holes in the ground to make sure that the water does not evaporate
The Fertile Crescent, the origin point for the agricultural revolution, was concentrated around which two rivers?
tigris and euphrates
Know the location of the three primary nomadic groups in the "Middle East."
Arabian Bedouins:are in the Arabian peninsula
Iranian Bakhtiaris: predominatey in iran
North african Berber: located in Northwest Africa
Though not as large in terms of total number of adherents, why is Judaism important in terms of its relation to other religions?
it gave birth to the two largest religions in the world: Christianity and Islam
Which religion of Southwest Asia is an ethnic religion, which is a religion closely associated with one ethnic group?
Although Sunni Islam is more widespread, Shia Islam tends to be more concentrated. In which countries is Shia Islam the dominant religion?
iran and iraq
Know the three holiest places in Islam
Mecca: Muhammad's birthplace and where he say's he heard the Word of God
Medina (second holiest place): first place to accept Islam and the death place of Muhammad
Jerusalem: third holiest city. at one point more important than mecca, direction ppl would pray. furthest north. Muhammad went to this place
What is the primary reason for the schism in Islam?
when Muhammad died he left not successor so people did not know who to follow
some said blood relatives- Shi'ites
others said anyone that was a devout follower- Sunni
Know the two waves of the diffusion (spread) of Islam.
Arab armies: carried islam with them and converted ppl by force into islam. took over north Africa and into Europe (parts of Spain).
merchants- traders- more peaceful. went to china, southeast Asia, down east coast of Africa. Southeast Asia- leaders would adopt islam, and all ppl became muslim.
Other than a place of worship, what other purpose do mosques serve?
social place and place of gathering
For what reason did Turkey change the Turkish alphabet?
be more like Europe and less of arabic neighbors
Though among the countries with the highest GDP per capita in the world, what negative impact does immigration have on countries like Qatar and the United Arab Emirates?
ack culture. no true culture. when most of country is mostly immigrant how do you have culture.
Generally speaking, how do Arab states differ from non-Arab Muslim states in terms of the treatment of women?
Women in Arab states have less rights need to be covered can't vote just recently were allowed to drive
Though it later took a more radical turn, what was the original catalyst for the revolution in Iran?
no original intent
Know the three levels of conflict in Sudan
History, Ethnicity, Religion
Despite being outnumbered and surrounded, how was Israel able to successfully defeat attacking Arab forces in the First Arab-Israeli War?
Israel knew military tactics from training.
What purpose does Israel's occupation of the West Bank serve?
military strategic position.It gives them a tactical advantage over Arab nations on their border.
What was the primary reason Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was assassinated?
By his own guard most linked to the fact of normalizing relations with Israel, he wanted it but his people did not
What is the "Arab Spring"?
Series of uprisings that have occurred throughout the Middle East
Which country, formerly led by Muammar Gaddafi, was accused of using state-sponsored terrorism?
Though coming from several countries, which country's ongoing civil war is responsible for a majority of the refugees fleeing to Europe as part of the current "refugee crisis"?
Know how Iraq is internally divided with regards to ethnicity and religion.
Won't survive as one country.
Far north: mostly Persians
Central: Arab, Sunni
South: Arab, Shi'ites
What was the primary justification used by Iraq in its 1990 invasion of neighboring Kuwait?
"historically Kuwait is apart of Iraq"
During the 1991 Gulf War, for what reason was Saudi Arabia the primary country used to liberate Kuwait?
So that it didn't look like western imperialism
What is the primary cause for the current conflict in Yemen?
North Yemen was historically Shia and South Yemen mostly Sunni.
What is the ultimate goal of ISIL, a goal that they already claim to have authority granted to the entity?
To gain control of all Muslims
How does ISIL function as a legitimate state?
Functions of a government. Collect taxes
Using oil to trade
know the general concept ab geographic ignorance
college students are the most geographically ignorant and cant find New Zealand on a map
understand the term "Africa bashing"
brutal honesty when comes to the conditions in africa
the Christianity material
Christianity came before islam and spread more rapidly once it became an official religion of the Roman Empire. became concentrated on european continent and areas of asia controlled by russian empire
where there has been some mixing, or on the borderlands between christianity and muslim, there has been significant conflict. Bosnia, Kosovo (territory disputed b/w Islamic Albania and Christian Serbia)(middle east) and several areas of Africa are recent examples.
what is the capital city of Burkina?
whats the only edible orchid, and where is commercially grown in the US?
for what animal were the Canary islands named?
whats the geographic difference b/w a yam and a sweet potato?
sweet potatoes are originated in the new world where yams are originated in Africa
what was the disease known as "the plague of the Americas"?
what is the leading cause of death in southern Africa?
why did the british oppose the Suez Canal?
they used sailing ships that couldn't be used in suez canal
what happened to the Afars and Isis?
changed to Djibouti
the names of what two countries in Africa start with the letter "Z"?
Zambie and Zimbabwe
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