286 terms

AP US history Ultimate Review Guide

ap us history review guide for semester one
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Jamestown
first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River
John Smith
introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation diplomat to local native American tribes, has fought Spanish and Turks
Pocahontas
key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617
Mayflower Compact
foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
John Winthrop
Calvinist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity"); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay
"City on a Hill"
exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs
Indentured servants
settlers to pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; head right system
Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
James I, Charles I
reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors
William Penn and the Quakers
settled in Pennsylvania, believed the "Inner Light" could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers
Roger Williams
challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church
Anne Hutchinson
challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
The Half-Way Covenant
New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
Bacon's Rebellion
rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans
Navigation Acts
only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 1763
Mercantilism
ensured trade with mother country, nationalism; too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists
Charles II, James II
tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures
William and Mary
ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies
Dominion of New England
combined Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one "supercolony" governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a "supergovernor"
The Glorious Revolution
William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures
James Oglethorpe
established colony of Georgia place as a place for honest debtors
The Enlightenment
emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity
Benjamin Franklin
connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan
The Great Awakening
began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities
Deists
believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
George Whitefield
powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity
Jonathan Edwards
Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance
New Lights vs. Old Lights
New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independent of each other
Albany Plan of Union
colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council"); never took effect
French and Indian War
French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection; more independent stand against Britain
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
Salutary Neglect
Parliament took minor actions in the colonies, allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements
Writs of Assistance
search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis
Townshend Act (1767)
similar to Navigation; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries
Sugar Act
increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs
Stamp Act
taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives
Stamp Act Congress
held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
Virginia Resolves
"no taxation without representation," introduced by Patrick Henry
Currency Act
prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
Virtual Representation
all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote
The Loyal Nine
group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city
Sons of Liberty
organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation
Declaratory Act
allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists' say
Boston Massacre
British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter
Committees of Correspondence
committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self-government, cooperation between colonies
Tea Act (1773)
intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)
Boston Tea Party
peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised asIndians
Quebec Acts
former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony
Suffolk Resolves
organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain
Olive Branch Petition
politely demanded from the king a cease-fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts, guarantee of American rights
Thomas Paine, Common Sense
stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution;appealed to American emotions
George Washington monarchical style rule
American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule
Whigs (Patriots)
most numerous in New England, fought for independence
Tories (Loyalists)
fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy)
British strengths and weaknesses -
British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army; exhausted resources (Hessians hired), national debt
Colonial strengths and weaknesses
fair amount of troops, short guerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington); nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles
Battle of Saratoga Burgoyne
American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
Valley Forge
scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben
Battle of Yorktown
last major battle; surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies
Treaty of Paris (1783)
full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland
American society during the Revolution
British-occupied cities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loaned money, African-Americans and Native Americans involved
Articles of Confederation
states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments; too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes
Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786)
foundation for First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
defined process for territories to become states (population reached 60,000), forbade slavery in the new territories
Alexander Hamilton
pushed for Assumption (federal government to assume state debts), pushed creation of the National Bank (most controversial), loose interpretation of Constitution, leader of Federalist Party
James Madison
strong central government, separation of powers, "extended republic"
Shays's Rebellion
mistreated farmers, fear of mobocracy, forced people to think about central government
Connecticut Compromise
advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population
Virginia Plan
bicameral congressional representation based on population
New Jersey Plan
equal representation in unicameral congress
Commerce Compromise
congress could tax imports but not exports
Federalism
strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable constitution
Changes in the Constitution from the Articles
stronger union of states, equal and population-based representation, simple majority vote (with presidential veto), regulation of foreign and interstate commerce, execution by president, power to enact taxes, federal courts, easier amendment process
Articles' achievement
system for orderly settlement of West
Elastic Clause ("necessary and proper")
gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists wanted states' rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion, more power to less-rich and common people; Federalists wanted strong central government, more power to experienced, separation of church and state, stated that national government would protect individual rights
The Federalist Papers
written anonymously by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison; commentary on Constitution, republicanism extended over large territory
Judiciary Act of 1789
established federal district courts that followed local procedures, Supreme Court had final jurisdiction; compromise between nationalists and advocates for states' rights
Bill of Rights
protected rights of individual from the power of the central government
Bank of the United States
Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
Report on Public Credit
proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of state debts, set up the first National Bank
Report on Manufactures (tariffs)
Hamilton praised efficient factories with few managers over many workers, promote emigration, employment opportunities, applications of technology
Strict vs. Loose interpretation of the Constitution
loose interpretation allowed for implied powers of Congress (such as the National Bank), strict interpretation implied few powers to Congress
Whiskey Rebellion
Western Pennsylvanian farmers' violent protest against whiskey excise tax, Washington sent large army to put down revolt, protests to be limited to non-violent
Citizen Genet
Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine
Impressment
British Navy would take American sailors and force them to work for Britain
Jay's Treaty
provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes
Nullification
states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional
Federalists and Republicans
the two political parties that formed following Washington's presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments
Washington's Farewell Address
warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
response to French attempts for alliance with US
XYZ Affair
French foreign minister (Talleyrand) demanded bribe in order to meet with American peace commission, made Adams unpopular among the people
Alien and Sedition Acts
meant to keep government unquestioned by critics, particularly of the Federalists
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutional
12th Amendment
required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates Citizen Genet - Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine
Second Great Awakening
emphasis on personal salvation, emotional response, and individual faith; women and blacks; nationalism (Manifest Destiny)
Election of 1800
Adams, Jefferson, and Burr: Adams lost, Jefferson and Burr tied, Hamilton convinced other Federalists to vote for Jefferson to break the tie
Barbary Pirates
North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtained fees from most European powers
Midnight judges
judges appointed to Supreme Court by Adams in the last days of his presidency to force them upon Jefferson, Marshall among those appointed
Marbury v. Madison
John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional
Lewis and Clark expedition
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on "Voyage of Discovery"
Non-Intercourse Act
sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing
Macon's Bill No. 2
president has power to cease trade with any foreign country that violated American neutrality
Embargo Act (1807)
prohibited exports (and imports) based in American ports, most controversial Jefferson legislation
War hawks
Clay and Calhoun, eager for war with Britain (War of 1812)
Henry Clay and the American System
Henry Clay aimed to make the US economically independent from Europe (e.g., support internal improvements, tariff protection, and new national bank)
John C. Calhoun
opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave-owner (right to own property, slaves as property)
William Henry Harrison
military hero from War of 1812; elected president 1840, died of pneumonia a month later, gave presidency to Tyler
Battle of Tippecanoe
decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison's campaign for presidency
Hartford Convention
December 1814, opposed War of 1812, called for one-term presidency, northern states threatened to secede if their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern and western states, supported nullification, end of Federalist Party
Essex case
Federalist cause leading up to Hartford Convention
Era of Good Feelings
Monroe presidency, national unity behind Monroe, post-war boom (foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco), Depression of 1819 (cheap British imports, tightened credit, affected West the most)
James Monroe
provided country with a break from partisan politics, Missouri Compromise, issued Monroe Doctrine
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Maine as free state, Missouri as slave state, slavery prohibited north of 36°30'
Tallmadge Amendment
no further introduction of slaves into Missouri, all children born to slaves to become free at 25
Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817)
agreement between US and Britain to remove armed fleets from the Great Lakes
Adams-Onis Treaty
remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined
Monroe Doctrine
Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs; supported Washington's goal for US neutrality in Americas
Panic of 1819
Bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly
Election of 1824
"corrupt bargain" and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson
Tariff of Abominations
under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocate free trade
Jackson's Presidency
focused on the "Common Man;" removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto
Transportation Revolution
river traffic, roadbuilding, canals (esp. Erie), rise of NYC
Erie Canal
goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways
National Road
part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion
Indian Removal Act
Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion
"Trail of Tears"
Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, high death toll
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation
Worcester v. Georgia
Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes
Spoils System
"rotation in office;" Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet
Lowell mill/system
young women employed by Lowell's textile company, housed in dormitories
Cotton Gin
allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, less need for slaves
Nullification Controversy
southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
written by Calhoun, regarding tariff nullification
Bank of the United States
destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution
Pet banks
small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury
Independent Treasury Bill
government would hold its revenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping the funds away from private corporations; "America's Second Declaration of Independence"
Specie
paper money; specie circular decreed that the government would not accept specie for government land
Maysville Road Veto
vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state
Liberty Party
supported abolition, broke off of Anti-Slavery Society
Whig Party
believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)
John C. Calhoun
opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave owner
Marshall Court cases
Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannot control government agencies),
Gibbons v. Ogden,
Fletcher v. Peck Dartmouth College, v. Woodward
Gibbons v. Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v. Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties' consent)
Second Great Awakening
religious movements, traveling "meetings," rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G. Finney
Burned-Over District
heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith's Mormonism movement
Horace Mann
worked to reform the American education system, abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix
William Lloyd Garrison
editor of The Liberator (strongly abolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery), fought for feminist movement ("Am I not a woman and a sister" picture of slave woman)
Frederick Douglass
runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star
Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
for women's rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
Angelina and Sarah Grimké
fought for women's rights and abolition, "Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!"
Dorothea Dix
worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann
John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community
John Noyes, New York; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, and complex marriage
New Harmony
first Utopian society, by Robert Owen
Hudson River School
American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects
Transcendentalism
founded by Emerson, strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strong references to nature
Ralph Waldo Emerson
in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote "The American Scholar"
Henry David Thoreau (Walden and On Civil Disobedience)
in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writing Walden, proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Nat Turner led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation
Yeoman Farmers
family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners
Underground Railroad
network of safe houses of white abolitionists used to bring slaves to freedom
Harriet Tubman
worked alongside Josiah Henson to make repeated trips to get slaves out of the South into freedom
"Wage slaves"
northern factory workers who were discarded when too old to work (unlike the slaves who were still kept fed and clothed in their old age)
Nativism
anti-immigrant, especially against Irish Catholics
The Alamo
Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio), Texans lost great number of people, "Remember the Alamo"
Stephen Austin
American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
James K. Polk
"dark horse" Democratic candidate; acquired majority of the western US (Mexican Cession, Texas Annexation, Oregon Country), lowered tariffs, created Independent Treasury
Oregon and "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
Oregon Territory owned jointly with Britain, Polk severed its tie to Britain, forced to settle for compromise south of 49° rather than 54°40'
Manifest Destiny
stated the United States was destined to span the breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible, advocated by Polk
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
acquired Mexican Cession (future California, Arizona, and New Mexico); Mexico acknowledged American annexation of Texas
Wilmot Proviso
slavery to be barred in all territory ceded from Mexico; never fully passed Congress
California Gold Rush
gold discovery in Sutter's Mill in 1848 resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849, led to application for statehood, opened question of slavery in the West
William Seward
Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; purchase of Alaska "Seward's Folly"
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Fugitive Slave Act
runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters (they were treated as property - running away was as good as stealing)
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin
depicted the evils of slavery (splitting of families and physical abuse); increased participation in abolitionist movement, condemned by South
Know-Nothing (American) Party
opposed to all immigration, strongly anti-Catholic
Popular Sovereignty
the principle that a state should decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act
territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); proposed by Stephen A. Douglas
"Bleeding Kansas"
border ruffians in election on issue of slavery incited controversy, proslavery group attacked Lawrence, Kansas, Pottawatomie Massacre
Lecompton Constitution
proslavery constitution in Kansas, supported by Buchanan, freesoilers against it (victorious), denied statehood until after secession
John Brown
led Pottawatomie Massacre, extreme abolitionist who believed he was doing God's work
Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856)
John Brown and his sons slaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress
Republican Party
formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act, banned in the South, John C Fremont first presidential candidate
Harpers Ferry (1859)
Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North
Dred Scott v. Sandford
slaves could not sue in federal courts (blacks no longer considered citizens), slaves could not be taken from masters except by the law, Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, Congress not able to prohibit slavery in a state
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
over Senate seat for Illinois (Douglas victor), Lincoln stated the country could not remain split over the issue of slavery
Freeport Doctrine
Douglas was able to reconcile the Dred Scott Decision with popular sovereignty; voters would be able to exclude slavery by not allowing laws that treated slaves as property
Fort Sumter
first shots are fired at Charleston, North Carolina
20-Negro Law
exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army; "rich man's war but a poor man's fight"
Anaconda plan
the Union planned a blockade that would not allow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy; control the Mississippi and Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico
Ulysses S. Grant
won battles in the West and raised northern morale (esp. Shiloh, Fort Henry, and Fort Donelson), made Union commanding general
William T. Sherman
pushed through northern Georgia, captured Atlanta, "march to the sea" (total war and destruction), proceeded to South Carolina
Robert E. Lee
opposed to slavery and secession, but stayed loyal to Virginia, despite offer for command of Union Army
Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
Lee's chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer
Battle of Antietam
Lee's attack on Maryland in hopes that he could take it from the Union, bloodiest day of the war, stalemate, McClellan replaced by Burnside, stalemate, South would never be so close to victory again
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Lincoln following Antietam (close enough to a victory to empower the proclamation), declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did not include border states), symbolic gesture to support Union's moral cause in the war
Battle of Gettysburg
Lee invaded Pennsylvania, bloodiest battle of the war, Confederate Pickett's Charge (disastrous), Lee forced to retreat (not pursued by Meade), South doomed to never invade North again, Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln (nation over union)
New York City draft riots (1863)
drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned
Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
South divided into 5 military districts; states to guarantee full suffrage for blacks; ratify 14th amendment
Compromise of 1877
South to gain removal of last troops from Reconstruction; North wins Hayes as president
Andrew Carnegie
achieved an abnormal rise in class system (steel industry), pioneered vertical integration (controlled Mesabie Range to ship ore to Pittsburgh), opposed monopolies, used partnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as a manager/partner), Bessemer steel process
Standard Oil Trust
small oil companies sold stock and authority to Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company (consolidation), cornered world petroleum market
John D. Rockefeller
Standard Oil Company, ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest)
Vertical and horizontal integration - beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition)
vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental)
Sherman Anti Trust Act
forbade restraint of trade and did not distinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton Anti-Trust Act)
United States vs. EC Knight Company
decision under Sherman Anti-Trust Act shot down by Supreme Court - sugar refining was manufacturing rather than trade/commerce
National Labor Union
founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
Knights of Labor
founded by Uriah Stephens (1869); excluded corrupt and well-off; equal female pay, end to child/convict labor, employer-employee relations, proportional income tax; "bread and butter" unionism (higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions)
Terence V. Powderly
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
American Federation of Labor
craft unions that left the Knights (1886), led by Gompers, women left out of recruitment efforts
Samuel Gompers
focused on skilled workers (harder to replace than unskilled), coordinated crafts unions, supported 8-hour workday and injury liability
"Yellow dog contracts"
fearing the rise of labor unions, corporations forced new employees to sign and promise not to be part of a union
Pinkertons
detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
10-year moratorium on Chinese immigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing to work for cheap salaries)
Haymarket Bombing
bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers' unions
Eugene V. Debs
led railroad workers in Pullman Strike, arrested; Supreme Court (decision in re Debs) legalized use of injunction (court order) against unions and strikes
Social Darwinism
natural selection applied to human competition, advocated by Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
single tax on speculated land to ameliorate industrialization misery
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards
state-run economy to provide conflict-free society
Karl Marx, Das Kapital
working class exploited for profit, proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society
Thomas Edison
electric light, phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures
Louis Sullivan
led architectural movement to create building designs that reflected buildings' functions, especially in Chicago
Interstate Commerce Act
created Interstate Commerce Commission to require railroads to publish rates (less discrimination, short/long haul), first legislation to regulate corporations, ineffective ICC
Social Gospel movement
stressed role of church and religion to improve city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladen; influenced settlement house movement and Salvation Army
190. Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association (YMCA & YWCA)
provided housing and recreation to city youth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all youth
Jane Addams
helped lead settlement house movement, co-founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty
Hull House
Jane Addams's pioneer settlement house (center for women's activism and social reform) in Chicago
Salvation Army
established by "General" William Booth, uniformed volunteers provided food, shelter, and employment to families, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bands in order to instill middle-class virtues
Declining death rate
sewer systems and purification of water
New immigrants vs. old immigrants
old immigrants from northern and western Europe came seeking better life; new immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe searching for opportunity to escape worse living conditions back home and often did not stay in the US
Cult of domesticity
Victorian standards confined women to the home to create an artistic environment as a statement of cultural aspirations
William Marcy Tweed
leader of Tammany Hall, gained large sums of money through the political machine, prosecuted by Samuel Tilden and sent to jail
Tammany Hall
Democratic political machine in NYC, "supported" immigrants and poor people of the city, who were needed for Democratic election victories
Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie, The Financier
attacked industrial elite, called for business regulation, publisher refused works breaking with Victorian ideals
Regionalist and naturalist writers
writing took a more realistic approach on the world, regionalist writers focused on local life (Sarah Orne Jewett), naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane)
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
government compromised to buy and coin $2-4 million/month; government stuck to minimum and inflation did not occur (lower prices); economy grew
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
government to buy silver to back money in addition to gold
James G. Blaine
Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland)
Pendleton Civil Service Act
effectively ended spoils system and established civil service exams for all government positions, under Pres. Garfield
Farmers' Alliance movement
Southern and Midwestern farmers expressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop - farmers had little cash flow during the year), criticized national banks
Greenback Party
supported expanded money supply, health/safety regulations, benefits for workers and farmers, granger(farmer)-supported
Populist Party
emerged from Farmers' Alliance movement (when subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress), denounced Eastern Establishment that suppressed the working classes; Ignatius Donnelly (utopian author), Mary E Lease, Jerry Simpson
Convict-lease system
blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racial hierarchy
Civil Rights Cases
Civil Rights Act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the fourteenth amendment protected people from governmental infringement of rights and had no effect on acts of private citizens
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court legalized the "separate but equal" philosophy
Munn v. Illinois
private property subject to government regulation when property is devoted to public interest; against railroads
Jim Crow laws
educational and residential segregation; inferior facilities allotted to African-Americans, predominantly in South
Coxey's Army
Coxey and unemployed followers marched on Washington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary public works program
Panic of 1893
8,000 businesses collapsed (including railroads); due to stock market crash, overbuilding of railroads, heavy farmer loans, economic disruption by labor efforts, agricultural depression; decrease of gold reserves led to Cleveland's repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act
William Jennings Bryan
repeat candidate for president, proponent of silver-backing (16:1 platform), cross of gold speech against gold standard; Democratic candidate (1896)
Free silver
Populists campaigned for silver-backed money rather than gold-backed, believed to be able to relieve working conditions and exploitation of labor
Triangle Shirtwaist fire
workers unable to escape (locked into factory), all died; further encouraged reform movements for working conditions
Gifford Pinchot
head of federal Division of Forestry, contributed to Roosevelt's natural conservation efforts
Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management
increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewarding those who worked fast; efficiency
Industrial Workers of the World
supported Socialists, militant unionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause
"Big Bill" Haywood
leader of IWW, from Western Federation of Miners
Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class
satirized wealthy captains of industry, workers and engineers as better leaders of society
Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life
activist government to serve all citizens (cf. Alexander Hamilton); founded New Republic magazine
John Dewey
social ideals to be encouraged in public school (stress on social interaction), learning by doing
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
law meant to evolve as society evolves, opposed conservative majority
Booker T. Washington
proponent of gradual gain of equal rights for African-Americans
"Atlanta Compromise" speech
given by BTW to ease whites' fears of integration, assuring them that separate but equal was acceptable, ideas challenged by DuBois
WEB DuBois, Souls of Black Folk
opposed BTW's accommodation policies, called for immediate equality, formed Niagara Movement to support his ideas
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
formed by white progressives, adopted goals of Niagara Movement, in response to Springfield Race Riots
Muckrakers
uncovered the "dirt" on corruption and harsh quality of city/working life; heavily criticized by Theodore Roosevelt; Ida Tarabell (oil companies), David Graham Phillips (Senate), Aschen School (child labor - photography), mass magazines McClure's and Collier's
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
revealed unsanitary nature of meat-packing industry, inspired Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
Thomas Nast
political muckraking cartoonist, refused bribes to stop criticism
Robert La Follette
created the Wisconsin Idea (as governor of Wisconsin) - regulated railroad, direct-primary system, increased corporate taxes, reference library for lawmakers
Mann Act
made it illegal to transport women across state borders for "immoral purposes," violated by black boxer Jack Johnson (w/ white woman)
Women's Christian Temperance Union
led by Francis Willard, powerful "interest group" following the civil war, urged women's suffrage, led to Prohibition
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
women must gain economic rights in order to impact society (cf. rising divorce rates)
Northern Securities Case
Northern Securities Company (JP Morgan and James G. Hill railroads) seen by Roosevelt as "bad" trust, Supreme Court upheld his first trust-bust
Theodore Roosevelt
first "modern" president, moderate who supported progressivism (at times conservative), bypassed congressional opposition (cf. Jackson), significant role in world affairs
Square Deal
Roosevelt's plan that aimed to regulate corporations (Anthracite coal strike, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Elkins and Hepburn Acts), protect consumers (meat sanitation), and conserve natural resources (Newlands Reclamation Act)
Preservationism vs. Conservationism
Roosevelt and Pinchot sided on conservation rather than preservation (planned and regulated use of forest lands for public and commercial uses)
William H. Taft
trustbuster" (busted twice as many as Roosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, caused Republican split)
Bull Moose Party
party formed from Republican split by Roosevelt, more progressive values, leaving "Republican Old Guard" to control Republican party
New Nationalism
federal government to increase power over economy and society by means of progressive reforms, developed by Roosevelt (after presidency)
New Freedom
ideas of Wilson: small enterprise, states' rights, more active government, trustbusting, left social issues up to the states
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction; far less active than Roosevelt, Clayton Anti-trust Act (to enforce Sherman), Child Labor Act
Federal Reserve Act
created Federal Reserve System, regional banks set up for twelve separate districts, final authority of each bank lay with the Federal Reserve Board, paper money to be issued "Federal Reserve Notes"
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