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thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions; rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances
an observation technique in which one person is studies in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by change, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
the experimental factor - in psychology, the behavior or mental process - that is being measured
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
a statistical criterion for rejecting the assumption of no differences in a particular study
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