Mastery quiz questions Ch. 7
Terms in this set (28)
A nurse who is caring for a patient with liposarcoma plans care for a patient with which of the following?
Malignant tumor of adipose tissue
An asymptomatic patient who is worried about developing breast cancer due to the fact that it runs in her family asks the nurse if she could have a mammogram to see if she has any lumps. The nurse informs the patient that a tumor usually is undetectable until it has doubled 30 times and contains more than 1 billion cells. This means that at this point it measures approximately which of the following sizes?
-Using conventional radiographic methods, a tumor usually is undetectable until it has doubled 30 times and contains more than 1 billion cells. At this point it is approximately 1 cm in size. A tumor that measures anything over 1cm including 3,4, and 5 cm would definitely be detectable using radiography
Which is an abnormal mass of tissue in which the growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues?
-An abnormal mass of tissue in which the growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues is called a neoplasm. A transformation occurs when a cell has become cancerous. A mutation is an alteration in the DNA that may or may not result in a transformation. An insertion is a type of mutation.
A nursing student says the following to her instructor: " Malignant neoplasms are more well-differentiated than benign tumors." Which of the following is the answer?
-Malignant neoplasms are less well-differentiated tumors that have lost the ability to control both cell proliferation and differentiation.
A nursing instructor sees the need for further instruction when one student makes which of the following statements concerning cancer?
Malignant neoplasms tend to grow slowly.
-Malignant neoplasms, which invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body, tend to grow rapidly and spread widely and have the potential to cause death.
Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been used to treat brain tumors, ALL, head and neck soft tissue tumors, and retinoblastoma in children. Childhood cancer survivors who had CRT as therapy for their cancers are prone to growth hormone deficiency. In adults, what is growth hormone deficiency associated with?
-Growth hormone deficiency in adults is associated with increased prevalence of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular mortality. Hypocalcemia is a deficiency of calcium in the serum that may be caused by hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, kidney failure, acute pancreatitis, or inadequate amounts of plasma magnesium and protein. It does not result from cancer therapy during childhood. Hyperinsulinemia is associated with syndrome X, which is a condition characterized by hypertension with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, increased peripheral insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and elevated catecholamine levels.
A nursing instructor who is teaching students about the effects of cancer identifies a need for further instruction when one of the students says which of the following?
"Many body functions are not affected by cancer."
-All of the above statements are true except for one. There probably is no single body function unaffected by the presence of cancer. It can affect other body structures besides its site of origin and many manifestations are compounded by the side effects of the methods used to treat the cancer.
A 40-year-old female has been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. When asked what causes this cancer, the physician looks at the history and responds, "I see in your history, you have had:
Hepatitis B related to IV drug use as a teenager."
-There is strong epidemiologic evidence linking chronic HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of hepatocellular cancers worldwide are due to infection with HBV or HCV. COPD, steroidal use, miscarriages, or endometriosis is not associated as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Which of the following is the primary advantage of targeted cancer therapy?
It uses drugs that selectively attack malignant cancer cells.
-Targeted cancer therapy uses drugs that selectively attack malignant cells without causing harm to normal cells. The remaining options are not necessarily true.
Cancer prognosis has improved most dramatically when treatment plans include which of the following?
Multiple types of treatment
-Treamtent plans that use more than one type of therapy, ofen in combination, are providing cures for a number of cancers that a few decades ago had a poor prognosis, and are increasing the life expectance in other types of cancer. The remaining options can be components of a multi-pronged treatment plan.
The nursing student who is studying about cancer correctly identifies which of the following to be the leading cause of death in both men and women?
-The leading cause of death in both men and women is lung cancer. Breast cancer leads death in women, whereas prostate cancer is the leading cause of death in men.
Select the physiologic response that increases an obese woman's risk for the development of breast cancer.
Increased sex hormone production
-Obesity has also been associated with increased levels of sex hormones (androgens and estrogens), which stimulate cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, and can therefore increase the chance of malignant cell transformation, particularly of endometrial and breast tissue. Obesity has been associated with insulin resistance and increased production of pancreatic insulin, both of which can have a carcinogenic effect. Obesity has been related to a condition of chronic inflammation characterized by abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines that can contribute to the development of malignant disease.
A client is exposed to secondhand smoke on a daily basis. The client asks if he is at risk for the development of cancer. The best response would be:
"Second-hand exposure does put you at any risk."
-Exposure to many carcinogens, such as those contained in cigarette smoke, is associated with a lifestyle risk for development of cancer. It is directly associated with lung and laryngeal cancer and has been linked with cancers of the mouth, nasal cavities, pharynx, esophagus, pancreas, liver, kidney, uterus, cervix, and bladder and myeloid leukemia. Not only is the smoker at risk but others passively exposed to cigarette smoke are at risk. Chewing tobacco increases the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and esophagus.
A patient who is diagnosed with breast cancer asks the nurse if cancer cells ever die. Which of the following is the nurse's best response?
"Cancer cell differ from normal cells by being immortal and have an unlimited life span."
-The best response for the nurse to make is to tell the patient the truth and that is cancer cells are immortal and can divide an infinite number of times, hence achieving immorality. The other responses are not therapeutic.
A patient whose mother and grandmother both have had cancer is at a higher risk for also developing the disease. Which of the following tumor suppressor genes are associated with genetic susceptibility to breast cancer? Select all that apply.
-Two tumor suppressor genes called BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified in genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer.
A patient tells the nurse that he is receiving cancer treatment that involves strengthening the immune system. The nurse documents that the patient is receiving which of the following?
-The nurse documents that the patient is receiving immunotherapy, defined as a cancr treatment modality designed to heighten the person's general immune responses in order to increase tumor destruction.
A 42-year-old female client with breast cancer has a tumor that is minimal in size and extension, has minimal regional lymph nodes involved, and has no distant metastasis. Using the TNM system the tumor is staged as:
T1, N1, and M0
-This client has T1—minimal size and extension of the tumor; N1—minimal regional lymph node involvement; and M0—no distant metastasis.
The oncologist has assessed a client diagnosed with cancer and determined that radiation therapy is the best course of treatment. The therapy will be most effective for:
Radiosensitive tumors that are fast growing
-The therapeutic effects of radiation therapy derive from the fact that the rapidly proliferating and poorly differentiated cells of a cancerous tumor are more likely to be injured by radiation therapy than those that are the more slowly proliferating cells of normal tissue. Radiation works better on tumors that are fast growing, with less metastasis, and that are well oxygenated.
The nursing student studying about cancer says the following: "A neoplasm, benign or malignant, represents a new growth." This statement is considered to be which of the following?
-A neoplasm, benign or malignant, represents new growth. However, benign and malignant tumors differ in terms of cell characteristics, manner of growth, rate of growth, potential for metastasis, ability to produce generalized effects, tendency to cause tissue destruction, and capacity to cause death.
A patent is diagnosed with an adenoma. The nursing student identifies this as being which of the following?
Benign tumor of glandular epithelial tissue
-An adenoma is a benign tumor of glandular epithelial tissue. An osteoma is a benign tumor of bone tissue
A nursing student while studying cancer correctly identifies which of the following as a method for classifying cancers?
-A basic method of classifying cancers is grading. Faces scale is used as a pain scale with children. A point system is not useful in classifying cancers and there is no such levels of seriousness used in regards to cancer.
A client with nonspecific signs/symptoms has gone to the primary health care provider. The client's chief complaints revolve around extreme fatigue, unplanned weight loss, and being so weak in the muscles. The diagnostic workup included a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tumor marker. The CEA result was elevated. The nurse should anticipate the physician will order which of the following diagnostic tests related to the elevated CEA? Select all that apply.
-CEA normally is produced by embryonic tissue in the gut, pancreas, and liver and is elaborated by a number of different cancers, including colorectal carcinomas, pancreatic cancers, and gastric and breast tumors.
Which target of both chemotherapy and radiation treatment accounts for adverse as well as therapeutic effects?
Rapidly proliferating cells
-Chemotherapy and radiation treatment both preferentially affect rapidly proliferating cells, which includes some normal body cells, such as epithelial and hair-follicle cells, as well as cancer cells.
A nurse interpreting a pathology report that indicates a patient has an adenoma determines that the patient's tumor is considered which of the following?
-The nurse should interpret the adenoma as a benign tumor that originated in epithelial glandular tissue. Malignant tumors are differentiated. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cellular death.
A nursing student has learned in class that with abdominal cancer the tumor may compress the viscera, which will cause which of the following?
-Cancer as it grows can invade and compress adjacent structures. Abdominal cancer may compress the viscera and cause bowel obstruction
A patient who has just recently been diagnosed with cancer asks the nurse what tumor markers are. Which of the following would be the nurse's best response?
Markers are antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells.
-Tumor markers are antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells or substances released from normal cells in response to the presence of a tumor.
A nursing student who describes cell characteristics that include regulated growth, genetic stability, limited life span, and growth factor dependence is talking about which of the following types of cells?
-Normal cells have regulated growth, high differentiation, genetic stability, growth factor dependence, high density dependence, and cell-to-cell adhesion.
A nurse is providing education on treatment options to the parents of a child with cancer. The nurse should include which of the following as the most widely used treatment modality for childhood cancers?
-The nurse should include that the most widely used treatment modality for childhood cancers is chemotherapy.