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Which type of immunity cell mediated or humoral has the ability to recognize and combat a wider range of microbes
(cell mediated can only recognize protein antigens)
During differentiation, some B cell may begin to produce antibodies of different heavy chain isotypes which mediate different effector functions and are specialized to combat different types of microbes. What is this process called?
Heavy chain isotope switching
Repeated exposure to a protein antigen results in the production of antibodies with increasing affinity for the antigen. What is this process called
What are the three types of B cell
Follicular B cells (lymph), Marginal zone B cells (spleen), and B-1 B cells (mucosa)
What type of B cell is able to respond to protein antigens and Th cell and has high affinity, long lived plasma cells, and isotype switching
Follicular B cells
Name four improvements that a secondary response has compared to a primary response in the humoral immunity
1) Quicker reaction time
2) Increased affinity maturation
3) Increased heavy chain isotope switching
4) Larger response
Describe the general pathway of signal transduction induced by antigen cross-linking and clustering of B cell receptors
BCR associated IgAlpha and IgBeta form BCR complex. When these are brought together their ITAMs start the cascade leading to activation of transcription factors leading to B cell proliferation and differentiation
Similar to how the T lymphocytes needed costimulators, there are two second signals that the B cell needs. what are they
The complement system (specifically CD3 binding to CR2) and a toll-like receptor (TLR) (which recognizes the PAMP on the microbe)
Where do the Th cells and B cells actually meet
At the edges of the lymphoid follicles in the lymph node (remember the B cells are in the follicles and the T cells are in the parafollicular cortex) (germinal centers)
Give the steps that occur as soon as the Th cell recognizes the MHC II molecule and peptide on the B cell
It expresses CD40L which binds to CD40 and it also releases cytokines. These signals then trigger then B cell to proliferate and differentiate producing antibodies (One of the effects of the reaction is the induction of heavy chain class switching which enables the production of different antibody classes which can optimally function to combat particular microbes each in a special way
What two things trigger heavy chain class switching
Binding of CD40L to CD40 and the release of cytokines from Th cells
What is the term for the rearrangement of the DNA in IgM producing cells aided by the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) which allows various Ig to be produced upon activation by CD40L and cytokines
Over time and with secondary and tertiary immune responses, mutations increase within the CDR regions leading to somatic hypermutation which may increase (lower Kd) the attraction of antibodies towards antigens. What is the this called
How many Ig molecules need to be brought together on the surface of a cell in order to send a signal after binding of microbe
What induces the switching phenomenon in B cells allowing a change from simple IgM antibodies to all the other types
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