22 terms

Biology Vocab

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Cell
The basic unit of all living things, contains organelles.
Organelle
Specialized structure that performs important cellular functions.
Cell Wall
Strong, supporting layer around cell membrane. Only found in plant cells.
Cell Membrane
Thin, flexible barrier that surrounds cells and regulates what enters or leaves the cell.
Nucleus
The center of an atom, contains protons and neutrons, and contains genetic material.
Ribosome
Organelle that consists of Ribonucleic Acid and proteins, found in the cytoplasm.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid, a genetic code with 4 materials that makes up all life. A= Adenine C= Cytosine G= Guanine T=Thymine
Cytoplasm
The material within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Vacuoles
Organelle that stores materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Chloroplast
Organelle only found in plant cells and other organisms that captures energy from the sun and converts it into chemical energy.
Mitochondrion
Organelle that converts chemical energy stored in food into compounds more convenient for cells to break down.
Lysosomes
Organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins that are used by the rest of the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled.
Passive Transport
Regulates movement of molecules from one side to the other not using energy.
Active Transport
Moves materials against a concentration difference.
Diffusion
Movement across a cell membrane without using energy from high to low concentration.
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through selectively permeable membranes.
Facilitated Diffusion
Molecules pass through special protein channels.
Isotonic
Concentration levels are the same in the cell and out.
Hypotonic
Lower solute concentration outside the cell.
Hypertonic
Higher solute concentration outside the cell.
Salinity
Level of salt in water.
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