Environmental Science for AP - Friedland and Relyea Chapter 2

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Terms in this set (...)

matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
mass
a measure of the amount of matter it contains
molecules
particles containing more than one atom
compounds
molecules that contain more than one element
hydrogen bonds
a weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molecule
surface tension
creates a sort of skin on the water's surface
capillary action
when adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than than cohesion between the molecules
chemical reaction
occurs when atoms separate from the molecules they are a part of or recombine with other molecules
law of conservation of matter
states that matter cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change form
inorganic compounds
compounds that either do not contain the element carbon or do contain carbon, but only carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen
organic compounds
compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds
carbohydrates
compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
proteins
made up of long chains of nitrogen-containing organic molecules called amino acids
nucleic acids
organic compounds found in all living cells; long chains of nucleic acids
DNA
the genetic material organisms pass on to their offspring that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation
RNA
translates the code stored in the DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins
lipids
smaller biological molecules that do not mix with water; examples are: fats, waxes, and steroids
cell
a highly organized living entity that consists of the four types of macromolecules and other substances in a water solution, surrounded by a membrane
energy
the ability to do work, or transfer heat
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that includes, but is not limited to, visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared energy, which we perceive as heat
photons
massless packets of energy that travel at the speed of light and can move even through the vacuum of space
joule
the amount of energy used when a 1-watt light bulb is turned on for 1 second - a very small amount
power
the rate at which work is done
potential energy
energy that is stored but has not yet been released
kinetic energy
energy of motion
chemical energy
potential energy stored in chemical bonds
termperature
the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
first law of thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed
second law of thermodynamics
when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but the ability to do work diminishes
energy efficiency
the ration of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system in the first place
energy quality
the ease with which an energy source can be used for work
entropy
randomness stated in the second law of thermodynamics (says systems move toward randomness rather than toward order)
open system
exchanges of matter or energy occur across the system boundaries
close system
matter and energy exchanges across system boundaries do not occur
inputs
additions to a given system
outputs
losses form the system
system analysis
determining a systems inputs, outputs, and changes in the system under various conditions
steady state
when the inputs equal outputs so that the system is not changing over time
feedback
adjustments in input or output rates caused by changes to a system
negative feedback loop
a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring; resist changes
positive feedback loop
amplifies changes
adaptive management plan
a strategy that provides flexibility so that managers can modify it as future changes occur