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34 terms

Science

STUDY
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energy transformation
A change from one form of energy to another
Law of conservation of energy
the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes
mechanical energy
energy in a mechanical form
kinetic energy
energy of motion
potential energy
stored energy
velocity
Distance traveled per unit time
mass
The amount of matter in an object.
Thermal Energy
the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance.
heat
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
conduction
the transmission of heat or electricity or sound
convection
the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion
radiation
the act of spreading outward from a central source
conductor
A device designed to transmit electricity, heat, etc.
insulator
a material such as glass or porcelain with negligible electrical or thermal conductivity
temperature
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
degree
a unit of temperature on a specified scale
thermometer
measuring instrument for measuring temperature
calorie
unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure
Kinetic Theory of Matter
the idea that all matter is made up of tiny particles in constant motion
crust
the outer layer of the Earth
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
outer core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
lithosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
tectonic plate
a piece of the lithosphere that moves around on top of the asthenosphere
convection
the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
divergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
science
An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
empirical evidence
scientific evidence obtained by careful observation and experimentation
theory
a tentative theory about the natural world
model
the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale)
law
a summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work