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energy transformation

A change from one form of energy to another

Law of conservation of energy

the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes

mechanical energy

energy in a mechanical form

kinetic energy

energy of motion

potential energy

stored energy


Distance traveled per unit time


The amount of matter in an object.

Thermal Energy

the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance.


a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature


the transmission of heat or electricity or sound


the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion


the act of spreading outward from a central source


A device designed to transmit electricity, heat, etc.


a material such as glass or porcelain with negligible electrical or thermal conductivity


the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)


a unit of temperature on a specified scale


measuring instrument for measuring temperature


unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure

Kinetic Theory of Matter

the idea that all matter is made up of tiny particles in constant motion


the outer layer of the Earth


the layer of the earth between the crust and the core

outer core

a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth

inner core

a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth


the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle

tectonic plate

a piece of the lithosphere that moves around on top of the asthenosphere


the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion

convergent boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other

divergent boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other

transform boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions


An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world

empirical evidence

scientific evidence obtained by careful observation and experimentation


a tentative theory about the natural world


the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale)


a summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work

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