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Muscle cells genrate forces that produce motion


IS a reponse to a stimulus caused by nerve cells


all cells take in and use nutrients from their surrounding


take substances and secreted new substances needed elsewhere


all cells rid themselves of waste products by lysosomes which digest/breakdown foreign material


cells absorb oxygen, which is used to produce ATP


tissue growth and replication. Nerve cells cannot reproduce

Plasma membrane

protect cell/ activation of cell/ stoage for any receptors/ controls transport/ and communicates


the sapce between the nucleus and plasma membrane. Contains thousands of enzymesinvolved in metabolism.


cell division, control of DNA; nucleolus produces mRNA


50% of cell volume, enzymes, organelles within


provide sites for protein synthesis

Endoplasmic reticulum

the synthesis and transprt of protein and lipid components of msot organelles.


process and package proteins onto secretory vesicles.


digest most cellular substances.


Generate most of the cells ATP

Fluid mosaic model

proteins float in lipid bilayer - for transport, catalyze reactions, receive signals, act as structural links, If antigens bury selves and resurface - provoke autoimmune disease,same proteins act as receptors for hormones, drugs, viruses, aby, neurotransmitters... pathology - if cholesterol in membrane up (cirrhosis(more cholesterol in RBC's, then
oxygen carrying capacity declines)


recognition and binding depend on the chemical configuration fo the receptor which must fit like a jigsae puzzle. (hormones, neurtotransmitters, Agns,
complement proteins, drugs. Ex: membrane changes of opiates, Agn (antigen) binding of WBC's -------> inflammation, immune response.

Cell to Cell Communication

they form gap junctions that directly coordiante tha activities of adjacent cells. they display plasma membrane bound signalling receptors. they secrete chemicals that signal to cells that are distant

Endocrine Signaling

secrete hormonal chemicals released by one set of (goes through the blood) cells that produce a response n other sets of cells.

Paracrine Signaling

cells secrete local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up , destroyed and immobolized.

Autocrine signaling

signaling molecules may act back on the cells of origin.


the neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and acts on the postsynaptic target cell.


It is the break down into smaller subunits, proteins into amino acids, polysachride into simple sugars, and fats into fatty acids/glycerol


cytoplasm It is the splitting of glucose to produce two molecules of ATP and convert into pyruvate

Oxidative phophorylation

occurs in the mitochondria and many electrons are gained n this process to be transferred ot the ETC. uses O2 as final electron accepter in ETC.


Is the break down of glucose into pyruvate

Citric Acid Cycle

msot of the ATP is generated during this cycle MAjor end products are CO2 and transfer electrons to ETC


water and small electrically uncharged particles move easil through pores

Active transport

requires energy by cellualr metabolism, has receptors that can recognize and bind with substances to be transported. Goes against concentration gradients,


Is the movement of solutes from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. the samller the molecule and the more soluble it is in oil, the more hydrophobic or nonpoalr it is and the more rapidly it will diffuse across the bilayer.

Hydrostatic pressure

is the mechanical force of water pushing agaist cellualr membranes. It is the blood pressure generated when the heart contracts. Hydrostatic pressure is balanced by osmotic pressure which when water moves out of capillaries, it is balanced by osmotic forces that tend to pull water into the bappilaries.


Osmosis is the movement of water down the concentration gradient (area of higher concentration to lower concentration. The membrane must be more solube to water than solutes. the concentration of solutes must be greater so that water can move more easily.


# of millisomes/Kg of water or concentraton of molecules/weight of water


concentration of molecules per volume of water or # of millisomes/L of water


Na+ s the principle ECF K+ is the principle ICF measured in milliequivalents/L or deciliter with equivalents dependent on valance (divalent = 2X)charge. (Ca++ in protein pores repels cations)

Passive Mediated transport

it is a carrier protein. Competitve inhibition- compete for the same receptor noncompetitive inhibitors- bind elsewhere but can alter the structure of the transporter.

NA/K antiport system

3 molecules of NA are trasnported out of the cell andand two molecules of K+ move into cell, this leads to electrogenc with the isnide of the cell more negative than the outside.

transport by vesicle formation

Endocytosis- forms a vesicle that takes things into cell. Pinocytosis- Ingesttion of fluid and solute molecules through formation of vesicles Phagocytosis- involves ingestion of large particles such as bacteria. Exocytosis- secretion of macromolecules or replacement of portiosn of the membrane.

Recepter mediated.

if specific ligands hit membrane coated pits (receptors) - cell can ingest large number of ligands and little ECF(cholesterol uptake)

Resting membrane potential

(-70 to -85 mv) Inside of cell is more negative than outside because of the sodium potassium pump.

action potential

It is when a nerve or muslce cell recieves a stimulus that exceeds the membrane threshold value, a rapid change in resting membrane potential occurs. The action potential carries signals along the muscle or nerve cell and communicated wiht other cells.


When a resting cell is stimulated the cell membranes become more permeable to sodium ions so a net movement of sodiums enter the cell and membrane potential goes to zero.

threshold potential

to generate an action potential and the resulting depolariztion the threshold potential must be reach which ocurs when the cell is depolarized by 15-20 millivolts. q


the negative polarity of the resting membrane potential is sestablished. voltage gated sodium channels close and potassium channels open and potassium leaves the cell causing a more neagtive membrane potential. The NA/K pump does its work to return the membrane potential.

Absolute refractory period

is when the plasmam membrane cannot respond to another stimulus.

realtive refractory period

stronger than normal stimulus

Cell cycles

Interphase- (G1,S,G2) is the longest phase of the cell cycle, the chromatin consist of very long slender rods jumbled together in the nucleus and begin to coil.
M phase
Prophase-the first appearace of chromosomes. two identical halves called chromatids and attached by a spindle called a centromere. Spindle fibers sart to form.
Metaphase- Centromers become alinged in the middle of the cell (equatorial palte).
Anaphase- begins when the centromers split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. Chromatids get pulled by spindles to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase- the final stage a new nuclear membane is formed around each group of 46 chromsomes.
Cytokensis- causes the cytoplasm to divide into two identical diploid cells.
Typically 12 to 24 hours.

Tissue formation READ!

to from tissues cells exhibit intercellular recognition and communication, adhesion and memory

Cell junctions

hold cells together and permit small molecules to pass from cell to cell, allowing coordination of activities.


hold cells together and maintain structural stability

Tight junctions

are barriers to diffusion, precent the movement of substance through transport proteins and prevent leakage of small molecules.

Gap junctions

are clusters of communciating tunnels or connexons that allow small ions and molecules to pass between cells.


junctions are regualted by ating, increased calcium emans decreased permeability at the junctional complex.

Simpe squamous

blood vessels, alveoli - diffusion, filtration

stratified squamous

mouth, epidermis of skin, esophagus, vagina
protection, secretion


bladder, hollow

simple cuboidal

glands, kidney tubules - secretion

simple columnar

digestive tract - gland ducts - secretion / absorption

ciliated columnar

bronchi, fallopian tubes - secretion, absorption and movement of fluid and particles

stratified columnar

pharynx, anus, male urethra - protection

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

some glands, male urethra, respiratory, transport

Loose connective tissue

unoganized fibers- collagen fibrous, reticular. Alot of ECF, macrophages. attaches to skin so it supports organs


Dense, compact, with few cells and more fibers. Located in dermis layer of the skin and is a protective barrier

White fibrous connective tissue

collagenous fibers and some eastic fibers, only fibroblast cells. forms strong tendons of muscle, ligaments, and fascia that surrounds muscle.

elastic connective tissue

elastic fibers, some collagenous fiber. is the strangth and elasticity to the walls of arteries, trachea etc.

Adipose Connective tissue

fat cells dispersed, stores fat, which procides padding and protextion

cartlidge connective tissue

colalgenous fiber in a firm matrix, gives support and flexibility to joints.


rigid, consits of cells, fibers and mineral, gives skeleton rigidity and strength.


fluid, serves as matrix for blood cells (tissue macrophages, kupffer's cells in liver, microglia and alveolar macrophages

Skeletal muscle

straited- attached to bones via tendons, voluntary movement


mycardium- end to end at intercalated disk. involuntarty pumping of heart


digestive tract, blood vessls, involuntary contractions.

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