Consumer Analysis and Behavior Essay Questions (midterm)

Terms in this set (41)

Reciprocal determinism or the reciprocal system refers to how any of the consumer analysis elements can change at any time and any element may or may not be the cause of that change. For example, a consumer may want to buy a dog but later they may change their mind and decide not to purchase one. Their change of mind could've been due to an environmental factor such as family. A family member may've advised them not to purchase a dog. A consumer may've also changed their mind because a consumer cognition factor. The consumer may've used their mind and thought about purchasing a dog, eventually deciding they weren't ready to own a dog. Lastly, they could've decided not to buy a dog because they just had a bad feeling about it. This would be because of a consumer affect factor. This is just one example of how all these factors influence each other in a reciprocal system.
A researcher needs to be very aware of the reciprocal system while analyzing consumers. There are five different implications when it comes to the reciprocal system.
1)a researcher needs to be aware of all three consumer analysis elements and how they can affect each other.
2)a marketer must know, since these elements form a wheel, any element can be the starting point.
3) a marketers need to realize that the consumer can continuously change at any time, due to any factor.
4) the elements can refer to not just one consumer, but a segment of consumers or a certain focus group of consumers. In other words, there are several layers a marketer can analyze.
5) important to remember the point of consumer analysis, which is to develop a marketing strategy.
1) the knowledge that is already in the consumers memory: A consumers ability to comprehend new information is highly depended on the knowledge they already have in their memory.
2 different levels of consumers based on their knowledge: 1) there are expert consumers who are very familiar with the product category, form, and brands. For example, a tea reviewer would be considered an expert consumer by tea companies. 2) novice consumers who have little familiarity with the product or brand. These aren't always the best consumers to target.

2) involvement: consumer who is more involved tends to process marketing information in a deeper more abstract way. (example, a consumer who is passionate about pandas will be more likely to pay attention to a commercial about stuffed animal pandas. This consumer is more involved with pandas and is therefore more likely to comprehend the marketing information. A consumer who, on the other hand, doesn't care much for pandas may not pay as close attention to the commercial)

3) exposure environment: the less a consumer is exposed to marketing information, the less likely they are to comprehend and process that information. Consumers who are in a hurry are also less likely to notice advertisements if they do not stand out. Marketers can overcomes problems like this by making sure their product is highly exposed and easy to process quickly. For example, ads with eye-catching pictures are more likely to comprehended quickly in comparison to small, wordy ads.
1) add a new salient belief about the attitude object: A marketer should aim to make this a positive new belief that will stick with the consumer. (This is the most common attitude change strategy). An example would be a makeup company beginning to make all their makeup water-proof. Consumers may then adopt the belief that all their products are water-proof. This would typically be a positive new belief that marketers would be happy about.

2) change the strength of already existing salient beliefs: A company may attempt to do this by further promoting already existing, positive characteristics. (example if a company is known for having good gluten-free products, they may seek to specifically promote this quality. If the company wasn't certified gluten-free, they may proceed to do so in order to solidify this belief in consumer's minds)

3) change the evaluative aspect of an existing, strong belief about a salient attitude: For example, if a company sold a cereal that was believed by many consumers to be healthy, the company may try to show how the cereal is healthy and what makes it healthy. For example, they may say certain ingredients, such as nuts, make the cereal healthy.

4) make an existing favorable belief more salient: done by making the consumer believe the attribute is more self-relevant then they originally thought. Though this strategy is very similar to the previous one, it has a few differences. One example would be the cereal company linking their product to a healthy liver. If they linked their product to a decrease in liver cancer, consumers may begin to believe this in a stronger way.
Behaviors are defined as specific actions directed towards a target object. Measuring behavioral intentions can be a challenge in certain situations. Typically these intentions are measured on a scale of 1 to 10, 1 being extremely unlikely and 10 being extremely likely. It can be hard to measure behavioral intentions according to attitudes since a person could have positive feelings towards something but could have no intention of acting upon that feeling or belief. Despite this, behavior intentions are often measured by attitude towards the behavior or action and the subjective or social norm.
a) it would be hard to determine a consumers intention to buy a new car. The consumer could really love cars and everyone could be in favor of them buying a car but there are too many other influencing factors. The consumer may not have enough money for a car or they may not want to buy one until next year.
b) soda from a vending machine. This can be hard to predict due to an unforeseen situational context and potential unforeseen environmental events.
c) saving $250 per month toward the eventual purchase of a house is also very hard to predict. Many things could potentially occur causing the consumer not to want a house. If the consumer changed their mind on buying a house, they likely won't save $250 a month. In order to predict behavioral intentions most accurately, a marketer needs to measure consumers' intentions at the same level of abstraction and specificity as the action, target, and time.
1) Operant conditioning is the process of altering the probability of behavior by changing the consequences.

2) Classical conditioning is the process by which a neutral stimulus becomes capable of causing a response because it was repeatedly paired with the stimulus that causes the response.

- First, classical conditioning typically is concerned with involuntary responses whereas operant conditioning is concerned with conscious responses.
-Classical conditioning can be accomplished through unconditioned stimuli and previously conditioned stimuli. (For example, most people have been previously conditioned to the sound of a microwave beep and will automatically know their food is done. A company may use this to their advantage by using it in commercials to attract consumer attention)
- Another important point about classical conditioned behaviors is that they are controlled by stimuli that occur before the behavior rather than after.

- behaviors influenced by classical conditioning are under the control of the automatic nervous system.
-operant conditioning is believed to by controlled by the skeletal nervous system.

-Another major difference is that, even though behaviors are elicited by stimuli that occur before the response, operant behaviors often occur because of the consequences that come after the behavior.

-Another difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning, is that operant includes both positive and negative reinforcement that can control behaviors.
1) certain model and modeled behavior characteristics can increase vicarious learning.
-Some common characteristics that businesses aim to achieve in their models is attractiveness and successfulness. Good-looking and celebrity models are very common. Model behavior is also important. A detailed and careful model is more likely to make an impact and encourage vicarious learning.

2) observer characteristics.
-Certain consumers will relate and learning more from different models due to their own different characteristics. For example, someone who has low-self esteem may be prone to learn more from attractive, confident models. Since the consumer may wish to be more like that, they will likely want to do what that model is doing. Another example would be someone with red hair. If they see a shampoo commercial with another redhead, they may be more likely to buy that shampoo since they see another redhead using that product.

3) characteristics of modeled consequences.
-Even though the consumer watching the commercial can't directly experience the consequences, they can observe the consequences of a behavior. For example, if a consumer watched a commercial advising people not to smoke, the consumer may see all the negative consequences of smoking. Though they don't experience those consequences, they can observe and realize that smoking is not healthy. Another example would be a commercial with a model eating ice cream. Though the consumer doesn't directly experience the ice cream, they can observe the model as they eat the ice cream. If the model is happy, they will assume that ice cream has positive consequences.
1) sampling - when a product is offered for free in order to encourage future purchases.
( Bath & Body Works where there are lotions and body spray samples customers can try. I like this because I can find the scent I like the best and then purchase it)

2) price deals - consist of discounts from the products regular price.
(a sign saying that the lotions in Bath & Body Works are all $10 off regular price. I like this strategy as well because if doesn't involve bringing in a physical coupon to receive a discount)

3) bonus packs - when a package contains more for the same price. In other words, it's just additional amount of the product.
(Bath & Body Works may have a package of lotions that come with a bonus container of lotion)

4) rebates and refunds- when a customer is given cash reimbursements after a purchase. This often occurs during large purchases such as cars or homes.
(consumer buying a Ford car in a dealership and then receiving a $50 rebate)

5) Sweepstakes and contests - when a consumer is entered into a drawing or competition to win a prize. Common prizes are cash and products.
(Bath & Body Works having a competition and asking consumers to come up with a creative name for a new lotion. The best name will win the contest and that winner may win a life-time supply of lotion)

6) Premiums - rewards or gifts that are given with the purchase of a product.
(consumer may be given a free lotion with every $50 purchase.)

7) coupons (most popular) used by consumers to get percentages of dollar amounts off a purchase.
(shop at Michael's, I use a 40% off any regular price item coupon.)
1) measure current levels of consumer affect, cognition, and behavior.
A marketer needs to be familiar with consumer thoughts and feelings in order to create an effective strategy. For example, if a marketer knows how consumers feel about strawberry ice cream, they will better know how to market strawberry ice cream.

2) analyze consumers and markets.
Once marketers have collected data from consumers and markets, they need to analyze and interpret that data to get the most out of it. For example, a marketer might send out free samples in order to discover how a target market feels about that sample. Once they get the data on the free samples, they will analyze it to see the results.

3) select and implement influence strategies.
Influence strategies are used to influence consumer feeling, knowledge, or behaviors. Strategies can be either long-term or short-term. For example, a marketer may choose to use a short-term price deal in order to influence behavior and increase sales.

4) measure strategic effects.
For example, if a marketer used price deals, they may measure and see if that strategy increased sales. Some strategies may not be successful for reasons such as faulty objectives.

5) ask if the desired influenced occurred.
For example, if the marketer desired increased sales from a sales promotion, they will check and see if the consumers were influenced in the appropriate way.

6) evaluate for performance improvement.
Even if a sales promotion is successful and sales increase, a marketer may look for improvement in order to increase sales more drastically.
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