67 terms

HIST 1010 Exam 1

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Natufians
Example of early affluent foragers
Denosovens
Group of HomoErectus that came from Asia
1+ people, protection, easy to maneuver
Benefits of a chariot
Fire, hunting, dams
Examples of human modification to environment
3500 BCE
When did the first civilizations begin rising?
Empire
Territory under 1 central authority without cultural coercion
20%
How much meat was in nomadic diets?
Tributes
_____ were collected by governments to help run them.
Kennewick man
_____ was found in 1996, disproving the Clovis First Theory
Fen River Valley
What region had the earliest evidence of sedimentation?
Social complexity, centralized state authority, surplus
Characteristics of a city
Men and women are equal
Define egalitarian
wealth
Otzi's copper axe showed his wealth, specialization, age, or diet?
13.7 Billion years ago
When did the Big Bang occur?
6 Million years ago
When did the Bipedal Hominins live?
Africa
Where were the Bipedal Hominins primarily found?
No. Humans only
Does the term Bipedal Hominins include monkeys as well?
Carry food, better sight, defensive help
What are some benefits/ reasons they may have evolved?
4.2-1 Million years ago
When did the Australopithicus live?
Good tree climber, tools, social, speaking skills, moves (No art or religion)
What were the Australopithicus known for?
Lucy; bigger brain and wider jaw
What famous Australopithicus fossil was found? and what looked different?
2 Million years ago
When did the Genus Homo live?
Homohobolus (handyman) and Homoerectus (thinking man)
Name the two variations of the Genus Homo.
From Africa to Africa, Asia, and Europe
Where did the Homoerectus travel from/to?
He had no teeth and that means there was a complex social structure. He had someone to take care of him, no need to fight
What did the Homoerectus skull found in Georgia, Europe say about Homoerectus society?
Neanderthals (400K years ago) Europe
Denisovans (200K years ago) Asia
Homosapians (200K years ago) in Africa and 100K years ago stayed there
Name the three lineages of the Homoerectus
Foraging and tool making; 2,000,000-10,000 or 2.6M BP-11,000 BP
What was the Paleolithic Era most known for? and years?
Symbolic language, better tools, migration to some settlements; 90,000-10,000
What was the late/upper Paleolithic Era known for? and years?
Farming complex things; 10,000-4000
What was the Neolithic/New Stone Age known for? and years?
We are able to be at ease in different settings, we can do things to adapt. and we take our culture with us
How are humans a Cosmopolitan species?
Collective learning
Symbolic thinking leads to....
New clothing, needles, caves, boats
What are some examples of new technologies that were created in the Paleolithic Era?
110,000 years ago- 10,000 years ago
What years did the Ice Age last?
There were lower sea levels, so more ice land connections that people used to cross
Explain how land bridges work.
Beringia
What land bridge did people use to travel from Northeastern Asia to Alaska, Canada, and America?
Argued that Homosapiens came between 11,500-11,000 years ago and then moved down after that 500 year window. 80% of Native American basic DNA comes from the Clovis group. Found in New Mexico
Explain the Clovis First Theory and proof that backs it up
Why is the migration period only 500 yrs? Artifacts found in Virginia and Chile don't agree with this theory. and the Kennewick Man
What are the problems with the Clovis First Theory?
Found in 1996 in Washington state, and should have DNA that matches the Clovis group but doesn't, and looks South East Asian, not Native American (Patrick Stewart)
Kennewick Man
Primarily stone and bones- but not enough to know about them.
Evidence of life in the Paleolithic Era?
Bio deterioration
Why don't we have enough evidence of life in the Paleolithic Era?
They ate what they could find
How did forgers get their food?
Statue of a very fat womanwith all sexual parts open (showed that fertility and bigger in size were hoped for)
What did the Woman of Willendorf show us about modern day groups?
30,000-40,000 Years ago
When did we start seeing the first examples of art?
25-30
How many people lived in a nomadic community
Egalitarian (gender equality)
What kind of hierarchy did the foragers have?
4-5 hours
How often did foragers hunt/gather daily?
35 years old
What was the average life span of a forager?
80%
What percent of forager diet was gathered foods?
30-40%
What percent of the foragers diet was honey?
Foragers that settle down and forage in their area
What are affluent foragers?
Cereals and grains mostly
What do affluent foragers eat?
Natufian Culture
What is one example of an affluent foraging culture?
Farmers farm their crops in an area and affluent foragers harvest what naturally grows in their areas and use wild resources.
What is the difference between farmers and affluent foragers?
decreased 6 in because of malnutrition
What happened to the average height of people after the transition from Foraging to Sedentary?
Pleistocene is the geologic era and Paleolithic is the human history (2.6 M -10,000years ago)
What is the difference between Paleolithic and Pleistocene?
Stone pillars in a concentric circle shape, shows that there was a division of labor
What was Gobeckli Tepe and what does it show?
Benefits: constant water supply, fishing
Drawbacks: flooding can ruin things (but it also makes the soil better)
What are the benefits and drawbacks of the rivers in the Fertile Cresent?
Plant crop, protect the crop, harvest the crop, save seeds and begin again
What cycle leads to agricultural domestication?
We live in codependence: where we depend on each other
Do we depend on animals or do the animals depend on us after domestication?
They began building more permanent settlements and caring for the land with more attention and they had more people in a community
What did the Natufians do that showed that they were sedentary?
Jericho (8000-7000 BCE)
Name one example of a Natufian society?
Women's toes were squished from crouching over
What was different in the female anatomy of the Natufia n society?
Potatoes
What crop was grown in America?
Beans
What crop was grown in Mezoamerica?
Wheat, Barley
What crop was grown near the Tigris, Nile, Euphrates, and Indus River
Rice
What crop was grown in Asia?
C. Agriculturist
What is NOT a characteristic of Paleolithic foraging societies? A. Nomadic B. Egalitarianism C. Agriculturist D. Symbolic thinking
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