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a riverbed that remains dry except during the rainy seasons


a spot of fertile land in a desert, fed by water from wells or underground springs

salt flat

flat land made of chemical salts that remain after winds evaporate the moisture in the soil

drip irrigation

the practice of using small pipes that slowly drip water just above ground to conserve water to use for crops

crude oil

petroleum that has not been processed


the removal of salt (especially from sea water)


a place where crude oil is converted into useful products

fossil water

water pumped from underground aquifers


(Islam) a Muslim place of worship


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries


a form of government in which religous leaders control the government


the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)

Western Wall

what remains of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem (the foundation)

Dome of the Rock

from here Muhammad ascended into heaven


a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine


Palestine Liberation Organization


A minority group in Turkey and neighboring countries


known as land between rivers

strategic commodity

a resource so important that nations will go to war to ensure its steady supply

Human resources

Resources found in people such as their skills or ideas


Arab nomads


A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.

Guest Workers

Workers who migrate to the more developed countries in search of higher-paying jobs.

What city is home of 3 monotheistic religions?


What religions can trace their roots back to Abraham?


What is the lowest place on earth?

Dead Sea

Saddham Hussein

Former political leader in Iraq

What year did the USA and 30 other countries go to war against Iraq for invading Kuwait?


What 2 countries colonized SW Asia?

Britain and France


Weapons of Mass destruction

Sunni and Shia

political and religious divisions within Islam
Sunni: followers of the Umayyad
Shia: followers of Ali

Sahara Desert

the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa

What is the highest point in Africa?

Mt. Kilimanjaro

Nile River

the world's longest river (4180 miles)

The Sahel

grasslands used for grazing south of the Sahara


..., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


..., the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert

Mt. Kenya

..., second highest peak in Africa; located in Kenya


..., a natural depression in the surface of the land often with a lake at the bottom of it

Rift Valley

..., a valley with steep sides


..., a steep artificial slope in front of a fortification

Serengeti Plain

in the northern Tanzani. dry climate and hard soil prevent the growth of trees but perfect for growing grass.


a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)

Masai People

Who are the people in Africa who are nomadic herders who herd cattle?


Open-air markets

Aswan High dam

one of the world's largest dams on the Nile River in southern Egypt

Lake Nasser

lake in Egypt formed by dams built on the Nile River at Aswan, a region that makes up the southern edge of the Sahara, where sparse and unpredictable rainfall results in severe droughts

Nelson Mandela

South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)


an epidemic that is geographically widespread


mud or clay or small rocks deposited by a river or lake

Bantu Migration

the movement of the bantu peoples southward throghout africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000

African Natural Resources

Gold, diamonds, cobalt, iron ore

Berlin Conference

A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa

What religion dominates North Africa?


Goree Island

departure point for slaves during slave trade


type of music developed in Algeria

Fang Art

carved wooden boxes and masks produced by Fang people

Olduvai Gorge

a gorge in northeastern Tanzania where anthropologists have found some of the earliest human remains


west african ethnic group.


North African cultural group

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