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Politics of the United States
AP US Government and Politics: Chapter 2- The Constitution
Terms in this set (47)
The Anti-Federalists were opposed to a strong central government.
A legislature made up of two chambers, or parts. The U.S. Congress, composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, is a bicameral legislature.
Checks and Balances
A major principle of the American system of government whereby each branch of the government can check the actions of the others.
A political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority except for those powers they expressly delegate to a central government. A voluntary association of independent states, in which the member states agree to limited restraints on their freedom of action.
A group of persons called electors selected by the voters in each state and the District of Columbia (D.C.); this group officially elects the president and vice president of the United States. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of each state's representatives in both chambers of Congress. The Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution grants D.C. as many electors as the state with the smallest population.
An international agreement between chiefs of state that does not require legislative approval.
A system of government in which power is divided between a central government and regional, or subdivisional, governments. Each level must have some domain in which its policies are dominant and some genuine political or constitutional guarantee of its authority.
The name given to one who was in favor of the adoption of the U.S. Constitution and the creation of a federal union with a strong central government.
The compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia plans that created one chamber of the Congress based on population and one chamber representing each state equally; also called the Connecticut Compromise.
The power of the Supreme Court and other courts to declare unconstitutional federal or state laws and other acts of government.
A structure of government proposed by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Rights held to be inherent in natural law, not dependent on governments. John Locke stated that natural law, being superior to human law, specifies certain rights of "life, liberty, and property." These rights, altered to become "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," are asserted in the Declaration of Independence.
A legislature composed of individuals who represent the population.
Separation of Powers
The principle of dividing governmental powers among different branches of government.
A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
A group of people occupying a specific area and organized under one government; may be either a nation or a subunit of a nation.
A doctrine that asserts the priority of national law over state laws. This principle is rooted in Article VI of the Constitution, which provides that the Constitution, the laws passed by the national government under its constitutional powers, and all treaties constitute the supreme law of the land.
A legislature with only one legislative chamber, as opposed to a bicameral (twochamber) legislature, such as the U.S. Congress. Today, Nebraska is the only state in the Union with a unicameral legislature.
Marbury v. Madison
The case that establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835 who gave the Judicial Branch more power
Secret United States court
Newest Supreme Court Appointee
Recent Obama Supreme Court Appointee
Only person to serve as Chief Justice after being the President
Quiet African-American Justice
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
Citizens may not be forced to quarter troops in their homes, unless prescribed by law
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Prevents double jeopardy and protects from having to be a witness against oneself and eminent domain
Rights to a fair and speedy public trial, to a notice of accusations, to confront the accuser, to subpoenas, and to counsel.
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Covers Legislative Branch
Covers Executive Branch
Covers Judicial Branch
Relations among the states and between the states and Federal Government.
Outlines how amendments, or changes, to the Constitution are to be made.
Established the Constitution as the supreme law of the land and states that all state and federal officials must abide by it, either by oath or affirmation.
Details the method for ratification, or acceptance, of the Constitution: of the original 13 states in the United States, nine had to accept the Constitution before it would officially go into effect.
Written by Hamilton, Jay, & Madison to support ratification of the U.S. Constitution
Total number of Representatives apportioned to the states based on population and reapportioned with the census every 10 years
Senate Majority leader
District Judge from Louisiana in the process of being impeached
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