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Microbiology: A Human Perspective Ch. 1
Chapter 1 of "Microbiology, A Human Perspective"
Terms in this set (71)
Theory that worms and other life forms arise from non-living material
French chemist and Father of Modern Microbiology. In 1861 demonstrated that air contains microorganisms by filtering air through cotton plug, and trapping them. Examined trapped microorganisms and found to be identical to broth experiments microorganisms. Developed swan necked flask, Disproved spontaneous generation.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
Dutch draper merchant. Made simple magnifying glass and observed "animalcules" in lake water
English microscopist. In 1665 discovered "microscopial mushroom" (Bread mold). Described how to make the type of microscope can Leeuwenhoek made 10 years later.
In 1668 used guaze covered jars to prove that worms on meat came from eggs of flies, not spontaneous generation.
English physicist. In 1876 found that sterilizing broths required different boiling times, and that hay contained heat resistant microbes. Concluded that some microorganisms exist in 2 forms: readily killed by boiling and one that's heat resistant.
Scientist and Catholic priest, in 1749 showed that flasks with different broths made by soaking hay, chicken, or other nutrient source in water gave rise to microorganisms even when flasks were boiled and sealed with a cork.
German botanist. In 1876 Discovered "endospores" (heat resistant bacteria)
Physiologist and priest, in 1776 contradicted Needhams experiments by boiling broths for a longer time and sealed the flasks by melting glass necks. Repeatedly demonstrated that broths remained sterile, unless flasks were cracked (became cloudy with microorganisms) concluding they entered with air.
Microorganisms and other infectious agents
The use of microbiological and biochemical techniques to solve practical problems. Has led to easier product of meds like insulin.
commercially valuable products from bacteria
cellulose: used in stereo headsets
hydroxybutyric acid: used in manufacturing of diapers and plastics
ethanol: used as biofuel
hydrogen gas: used as possible biofuel
oils: used as possible biofuel
insect toxins: used in insecticides
antibiotics: used in treatment of disease
amino acids: used as dietary supplements
Acellular (non living) infectious agents
Viruses, Viroids, Prions
Characteristics of a Virus
Consists of either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat
Characteristics of a Viroid
Consists of RNA only, no protein coat
Characteristics of a Prion
No DNA or RNA, consists only of an abnormal form of cellular protein
Prions are infectious proteins...
"Misfolded versions of normal cellular proteins found in the brain, Causes neurodegenerative diseases, Resistant to standard sterilization procedures."
Using microorganisms to hasten decay of pollutants
Characteristics of Domain Bacteria
Prokaryotes (single celled) consisting of a prokaryotic cell ("prenucleus") no membrane bound nucleus, DNA in nucleoid, Rigid cell wall contains peptidoglycan(compound unique to bacteria).commonly cylindrical, spherical, or spiral. Many can move using flagella. Typically multiply by binary fission.
Characteristics of Domain Archaea
Similar to Bacteria (prokaryotic cell structure, similar shapes and sizes, binary fission, move with flagella, rigid cell walls) but RNA sequences are different and cell walls lack peptidoglycan. grow in extreme environments and kill most other organisms. widely distributed in soils, oceans, marshes and intestinal tract.
Characteristics of Domain Eucarya
Eukaryotes, meaning that they are composed of one or more eukaryotic cells (True Nucleus),have cell membrane bound nucleus and other organelles (more complex than prokaryotes) Members include fungi, algae, protozoa and certain multicellular parasites
Binomial System of Nomenclature (two word naming system)
"Two words. first (capitalized) indicates genus, second (lower case, italics) indicates specific epithet or species ex: E. coli
The highest level in classification above kingdom. The 3 domains are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya
Microbes that potentially cause disease
Golden Age of Microbiology
1857-1914, important period when scientists were learning a great deal about medically important microbes.
Process of adding microorganisms to pollutants to hasten their decay
A.k.a normal flora, all surfaces of the human body are populated with characteristic communities of microorganisms known as this. they prevent disease by competing with pathogens, members of normal intestinal microbiota help in development of intestine and immune system, and help degrade foods
Parasites, including roundworms and tapeworms
Diverse groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Some single celled, others multicellular, many sizes and shapes. Contain chloroplasts, many having chlorophyll (green pigment), some have other pigments, which absorb energy of light used in photosynthesis. Rigid cell walls, chemical composition distinct from Bacteria and Archaea. Many move by flagella. Found near surface of salt or fresh water.
Diverse group of eukaryotes, some single celled yeasts, many are large multicellular organisms like mold and mushrooms. Gain energy from degrading organic materials, found anywhere these materials are present. Primarily live on land.
Diverse group of microscopic, single celled organisms, living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Very complex, generally much larger than prokaryotes. No rigid cell wall. Most ingest organic compounds as food sources and are motile.
Non-living Made of nucleic acid packaged within a protein coat, variety of shapes. To multiply, the use machinery and nutrients of living cells called hosts. Outside hosts they are inactive. Are obligate intracellular parasites. All forms of life can be infected by different types of these. Frequently kill the cells in which they multiply, can remain in host without obvious signs or effects. As host cells multiply they copy viral genetic info, passing it along to progeny.
Non-living, Simpler than viruses, consisting of a single cell, short pieces of RNA. Multiply only inside cells. Cause plant diseases, scientists speculate it may cause disease in humans (no evidence)
Non-living, Infectious proteins responsible for many fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. Apparently are simply misfolded versions of normal cellular proteins found in brain. When misfolded versions contact normal cellular protein, forces normal protein to misfold, resulting in cells becoming filled with abnormal proteins that bind together, forming threadlike structures (fibrils) and now not able to function. Disease acquired by eating prion containing nervous tissue. Resistant to sterilization used procedures that destroy viruses and bacteria.
vital activities of microorganisms
activities vital for survival of all organisms. Bacteria convert the nitrogen gas in air into a form that plants and other organisms can use. Microorganisms replenish O2 and degrade certain materials no other organisms can.
Diseases emerge from new lifestyles and changing infectious agent. Diseases once under control re-emerge when successful preventative measures fail, pathogens start resisting antimicrobial meds, travelers carry pathogens around globe, populations age or become more susceptible to diseases. Less child vaccinations.
The property of endospores that led to confusion in the experiments on spontaneous generation is their...
The "Golden Age of Microbiology" was when...
most pathogenic bacteria were identified.
Microorganisms play a role in...
disease, biodegradation, cheese production, nitrogen recycling.
The prokaryotic members of the microbial world include...
bacteria and achaea
are microscopic and are mostly found in extreme environments.
Prokaryotes typically don't have...
a nuclear membrane.
Nucleoids are associated with...
genetic info and prokaryotes.
can contain protein and nucleic acid and infect all domains of life.
Antony van Leewenhoek couldn't have observed
developed concept of biogenesis
Germ Theory of Disease
Microorganisms cause disease. Pasteur discovered parasite causing silk worm disease - a microbe.
a fear of foul odors or unwashed bodies
1867, publishes first work on antiseptic surgery. Applied germ theory to medical procedures. Based work on ideas from Semmelweis in 1840's. Put information from Pasteur with information from Semmelweis. Showed that deaths following surgery were greatly reduced.
1876, demonstrated anthrax caused by a spore-forming bacterium
1881, introduces pure culture techniques in lab.
1882, discovers cause of tuberculosis, isolates the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacteria tuberculosis
1884, Koch's postulates which relate a specific microbe to a specific disease
how vaccination became
Edward Jenner 1796. It was noticed that milk maids had clear skin, had contracted small pox. Took small amount of material and scratched into skin of 8yr old volunteer (based on previous work by Lady Montague & Chinese- who ground scab material from mild case and snorted it to variolate). Pasteur ( following Koch's postulates) discovered why it worked in 1880 and named it vaccination.
treatment of disease
No antibiotics til 1940's. Could prevent disease but not treat. Paul Erlich developed salvarsan. Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin. Dubois discovered two antibiotics. Iwonowksi discovered the tobacco mosaic virus.
Only 5% of bacteria found. New diseases and re-emerging pathogens. Legionnaires disease, Lyme disease, AIDS, Cryptosporidia, Hanta virus, E. coli O:157H:7, Influenza H1N1
factors contributing to increase of disease
People live longer and immunity decreases.
Life style changes (tampons causing toxic shock and Lyme disease in rural areas)
Diseases have ability to change and adapt to new host
Increased movement of humans(AIDS began in green monkey and moved to human host)
Laxity and fear of immunizations
Production of medicine- insulin, human growth hormone, interferon, blood clot
development of vaccines- against rabies, gonorrhea, herpes, leprosy, malaria, hepatitis
bioremediation- bacteria clean up the environment by destroying chemicals such as a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and oil
genetically altered plants that are resistant to disease- BT corn contains the portion of bacillus therengenesis that renders it toxic to pests
production of substances- headphones, oil, pesticides
bacteria changes fruits such as bananas to prevent some diarrheal disease in children
Heat resistant forms of bacteria. Very environmentally resistant and can remain viable for over 300 years. when survival of a species is imperative spores are produced. When spores germinate they create a vegetative cell.
many different shapes created by one bacteria
division patterns among bacteria (cocci)
diplococci, streptococci, staphylococci
division patterns among bacteria (bacilli)
bacilli, diplobacilli, streptobacilli, coccobacillus, ?fusiform
spiral shaped bacteria
vibrios, spirillium, and spirochetes
prokaryotic cell structure parts
extracellular- filamentous appendages, capsules and slime layer, cell wall
cell boundary- cytoplasmic membrane
intracellular- DNA, endospore, cytoskeleton, gas vesicles, granules, ribosomes
composed of protein subunits that form a helical pattern.
flagella- provide the most common mechanism of motility.
pili- common types are fimbriae which allow cells to adhere to surfaces. some used for twitching (allows bacteria in colonies to move along a solid medium) or gliding motion (allow smooth motion). sex pili (f pilus) join cells in preparation for(strictly) DNA transfer. conjugation is bacterial sex and conjugation bridge takes 100 minutes.
capsules and slime layers
layers outside the cell wall usually made of polysaccharide.
capsule- distinct and gelatinous. Allows bacteria to adhere to specific surfaces; allows some organisms to evade innate defense systems and cause disease.
slime layer- diffuse and irregular, loose. Allows bacteria to adhere to specific surfaces.
peptidoglycan provides rigidity to bacterial cell walls, preventing the cells from lysing. structure, shape, protection, disease.
Gram-positive- thick layer of peptidoglycan that contains teichoic acids and lipoteichoic proteins. up to 30 layers of interconnected glycans form wall.
Gram-negative- thin layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane (periplasmic space). outer layer of the outer membrane is lipopolysaccharide.
cytoplasmic membrane- phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins. Surrounds the cytoplasm, separating it from the outside environment. Also transmits information about the external environment to the inside of the cell.
contains the genetic information of the cell
chromosomal- carries the genetic info required by a cell. typically a single, circular, double stranded DNA molecule.
plasmid- extrachromosomal DNA molecule. Generally carries only genetic information that may be advantageous to a cell in certain situations.
involved in cell division and control of cell shape
small, rigid structures that provide buoyance to a cell
accumulations of high molecular weight polymers, synthesized from a nutrient available in relative excess
involved in protein synthesis. two subunits,30S and 50S, join to form the 70S ribosome
types of flagella
monotrichous- one polar flagella
peritrichous- flagella all over cell
amphitrichous- one flagella at each end
lophotrichous- two or more flagella at each end
Recommended textbook explanations
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
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