71 terms

Chapter 1 Biology

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Biology
Scientific study of life
Common Properties of life(list)
Order, Reproduction, Growth and Development, Energy Processing, Regulation, Response to the Environment
Order
An organized arrangement of molecules in living things into a specific pattern or structure.
Reproduction
The action or ability to produce offspring, sexually or asexually.
Growth and Development
The process of becoming larger over time in patterns of traits passed on by parents.
Energy Processing
The action of taking in a energy source and often using it to power something or someone's functions.
Regulation
An internal response to a stimuli to benefit the organism.
Is NOT Response the environment because it is a external reopens to an environmental stimuli rather than being a internal response to a stimuli.
Response to the Environment
A external response to an environmental stimuli.
Is NOT Regulation because it is an internal response to a stimuli instead of an external response to an environmental stimuli.
How would you define Life?
Can be defined as a set of common properties such as those described(Order, Reproduction, Growth and Development, Energy Processing, Regulation, Response to the Environment).
Life's hierarchy of Organization
1.Biosphere
2.Ecosystem
3.Community
4.Population
5.Organism
6.Organ System
7.Organ
8.Tissue
9.Cells
10.Organelle
11. Molecule
Biosphere
All of the environments on earth that support life
Ecosystem
Consists of all the living organism in a particular area
Community
The entire array of organisms in an ecosystem
Population
All individuals of a specific species living in a particular area
Organism
An individual living thing
Organ System
A system of several organs that cooperate in a specific function
Organ
Made up of tissues,made up of similar cells that work together to perform a certain function
Tissues
Make up organs, made up of groups of cells
Cells
1.Fundamentals units of life
2.At level where properties of life emerge
3.the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life.
4.All share certain characteristics
Organelles
A membrane enclosed structure that performs a specific function in a cell.
Molecule
A cluster of small chemical units called atoms held together by chemical bonds
Emergent Properties
New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts complexity increases
Prokaryotic Cells
1.First to evolve
2. Simple
3.No Nucleus
4. Small
5.Bacteria
Eukaryotic Cells
1. Evolved from prokaryotic cells
2.Complex
3. A nucleus with organelles
4.Large
5.Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists
System
A combination of components that form a more complex form of organization.
How do plants provide food for the typical ecosystem?
Ex: Trees
Absorbs water(H2O) and minerals from soil through roots, its leaves take in carbon dioxide(CO2) from the air. In photosynthesis, tree's leaves use energy from sunlight to convert CO2 and H2O to sugar and oxygen(O2).The leaves release O2 into the air and the roots help form soil by breaking up rocks pervading would for other plants and trees.
How to release energy in food?
Animals take in O2 from the air and release CO2. An animals waste return to the environment.
What do the decomposers do?
Some animals, fungi, and bacteria in the soil and they decompose waste the remains of dead organisms. They act as recyclers, changing complex matter into simpler matter that plants can absorb and use.
Two major processes of dynamics of an ecosystem
The recycling of chemicals and the flow of energy
What are the most basic chemicals needed for life?
carbon dioxide, water, oxygen, various minerals
How does energy flow?
Flows into an ecosystem when plants and other photosynthesizers absorb light from the sun and they convert into he chemical energy of sugar and there complex molecules.
How does energy enter and exit an ecosystem?
Energy enters as light and exits as heat
what does the continuity of life depend on that all cells have?
DNA
Genes
The units of inheritance that transmit information from parent to offspring
What are genes grouped in?
They are grouped into very long strands of DNA molecules called chromosomes.
Where does diversity of life arise?
It arises from differences in DNA sequences
Genome
the complete set of genetic material of an organism or virus
What are the four chemicals DNA?
Adenine, Thymine. Cytosine, and Guanine.
What are the two main functions of DNA?
Is genetic material that is passed from parents to offspring and t codes for proteins that control the activity of cells.
3 domains
Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea
Bacteria
1.Consist of prokaryotes, organisms with prokaryotic cells
2.most diverse and widespread prokaryotes
Archaea
1.Consist of prokaryotes, organisms with prokaryotic cells
2. Live in extreme environments
3. known as extremophiles
Eukarya
1. Have eukaryotic cells
2. Single celled protists and multicellular fungi, animals, and plants
Protists
(multiple kingdoms)
1. Not a plant, animal, or fungus
2. Is eukaryotic
Ex: Algae, amoeba, slime mold
Kingdom Plantae
1.Multicellular
2.Photosynthetic
3.Roots, shoots, and leaves
4. If don't have one of these properties then it's a protist
Kingdom Fungi
1.Has cell wall made of chitin
2.Digests food externally and absorbs nutrients
3.Sends out digestive enzymes
4. NEVER does photosynthesis
5. More similar to us than plants
Ex: Molds, mushrooms,fungi, ringworms
Kingdom Animalia
1.Multicellular
2. Ingest food
Ex: Sponges, jellyfish, insects, worms, fish, reptiles, amphibians, mammals
Evolution
Can be described as the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from it's earliest beginnings to the diversity go organisms living today
Darwin Theory of Evolution
1. Species living today descended from ancestral species in what Darwin called "descent with modification."
2. Natural Selection is a mechanism for evolution
What does scientific inquiry involve?
Making Observations, forming hypotheses, and testing them.
Hypotheses
A testable explanation for a set of observations asked on available data and guided by inductive reasoning.
Theory
A widely accepted explanatory idea that is broader in scope than a hypotheses but generates a new hypothesis and is supported by a large body of evidence.
Controlled Experiment
An experiment in which an experimental group s compared with a control group that varies only in the factoring tested.
What is the primary mechanism for evolution?
Natural Selection
Artificial Selection
The selective breeding of domesticated plants d animals to produce the occurrence of desirable traits.
Technology
The application of knowledge or a specific purpose.
Biology can be described as having both a vertical scale and a horizontal scale. Explain what that means.
The vertical scale of biology refers to the hierarchy of biological organization: from molecules to organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. At each level, emergent properties arise from the interaction and organization of component parts. The horizontal scale of biology refers to the incredible diversity of living organisms, past and present, including the 1.8 million species that have been named so far. Biologists divide these species into three domains- Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya- and organize them into kingdoms and other groups that attempt to reflect evolutionary relationships.
What best describes the logic of the scientific process?
If my hypothesis is correct, I can make predictions and my results will not falsify my hypothesis.
Single-celled amoebas and bacteria are grouped into different domains because
Bacterial cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
A biologist studying interactions among the protists in an ecosystem could not be working at which level in life's hierarchy?
the organ level.
What statement best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?
Hypotheses are usually narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
What best demonstrates the unity among all living organisms?
common genetic code.
The core idea that makes sense of all biology is
evolution
In an ecosystem, how is the movement of energy similar to that of chemical nutrients, and how is it different?
Both energy and chemical nutrients are passed through an ecosystem from producers to consumers to decomposers. But energy enters an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat. Chemical nutrients are recycled from the soil or atmosphere through plants, consumers, and decomposers and returned to the air, soil, and water.
Explain the role of heritable variations in Darwin's theory of natural selection.
Darwin described how natural selection operates in populations whose individuals have varied traits that are inherited. When natural selection favors the reproductive success of certain individuals in a population more than others, the proportions of heritable variations change over the generations, gradually adapting a population to its environment.
Explain what is meant by this statement: The scientific process is not a rigid method.
In pursuit of answers to questions about nature, a scientist uses a logical thought process involving these key elements: observations about natural phenomena, questions derived from observations, hypotheses posed as tentative explanations of observations, logical predictions of the outcome of tests if the hypotheses are correct, and actual tests of hypotheses. Scientific research is not rigid method because a scientist must adapt these processes to the set of conditions particular to each study. Intuition, chance, and luck are also part of science.
Contrast technology with science. Give an example of each to illustrate the difference.
Technology is the application of scientific knowledge. For example, the use of solar power to run a calculator or heat a home is an application of our knowledge, derived by the scientific process , of the nature of light as a type of energy and how light energy can be converted to other forms of energy. Another example is the use of DNA to insert new genes into crop plants. This process, often called genetic engineering, stems from decades of scientific research on the structure and function of DNA from many kinds of organisms.
Explain what is meant by this statement: Natural selection is an editing mechanism rather than a creative process.
Natural selection screens (edits) heritable variations by favoring the reproductive success of some individuals over others. It can only select from the variations that are present in the population; it does not create new genes or variations.
What iS Dr. Fenske's mantra
STRUCTURE DETERMINES FUNCTION
Unequal reproductive success
Individuals with heritable traits best suited to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce more than less well-suited individuals.
Accumulation of favorable traits over time
As a result of this unequal reproductive success over many generations, an increasing proportion of individuals in a pollution will have advantageous traits.