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Chemical Bond

a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions

Covalent Bonding

the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms

Non-Polar Covalent Bond

a covalent in which the bonding electrons are shared equally be the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge


uneven distribution of charge


a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds

Molecular Compound

a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules

Chemical Formula

the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts

Molecular Formula

shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound

Bond Energy

the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms

Electron-dot Notation

an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol

Lewis Structures

formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron paris in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons

Structural Formulas

indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of hte atoms in a molecule

Single Bond

a covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms

Multiple Bonds

double and triple bonds


refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure

Ionic Compound

composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal

Formula Unit

the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compund's formula can be established

Lattice Energy

the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions

Polyatomic Ion

a charged group of covalently bonded atoms

Metallic Bonding

the chemical bonding that results form the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons


the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets


the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire

VSEPR Theory

states that repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible


the mixing to two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new hybrid atomic orbitals of ezual energies

Hybrid Orbitals

orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom


created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance

Hydrogen Bonding

the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule

London Dispersion Forces

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

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