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29 terms

Chemistry Chapter 6 Vocab.

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Chemical Bond
a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
Ionic Bonding
Chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions
Covalent Bonding
the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
Non-Polar Covalent Bond
a covalent in which the bonding electrons are shared equally be the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
Polar
uneven distribution of charge
Molecule
a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
Molecular Compound
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
Chemical Formula
the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
Molecular Formula
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
Bond Energy
the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
Electron-dot Notation
an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol
Lewis Structures
formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron paris in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
Structural Formulas
indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of hte atoms in a molecule
Single Bond
a covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
Multiple Bonds
double and triple bonds
Resonance
refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
Ionic Compound
composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
Formula Unit
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compund's formula can be established
Lattice Energy
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
Polyatomic Ion
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
Metallic Bonding
the chemical bonding that results form the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
Malleablility
the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
Ductility
the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire
VSEPR Theory
states that repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible
Hybridization
the mixing to two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new hybrid atomic orbitals of ezual energies
Hybrid Orbitals
orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
Dipole
created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
Hydrogen Bonding
the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
London Dispersion Forces
the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles