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Motivation and Addiction (Dr. Bessac)
Terms in this set (37)
What is the Disease Model of drug abuse?
Biological and psychological condition of an individual
What is the Moral Model of drug abuse?
Drug use is a crime against society
What is the justice system's perspective of the treatment of drug abuse?
Prevent and punish the illegal use of drugs
What is the health community's perspective of the treatment of drug abuse?
Treat the biology and psychology of addiction, substance abuse, and withdrawal
What are the stages of "training" an addictive habit? (6)
1. Predisposed conditions
2. Intoxication reinforcement --> habitual intoxication and excessive binging
3. Withdrawal Punishment
6. Detrimental Effects
What are some predisposed conditions/factor of vulnerability?
- Genetic factors
- Personality characteristics
- Age of onset (get em young)
- Family, cultural, social and community factors
What percent of children of alcoholics are also alcoholics?
Strives to maximize net pleasure
The immediate euphoria or escape feels good so a person takes the drug and wants to take it again
T/F: Native Americans have a higher prevalence of alcoholism than other races?
T/F: Women have a higher rate of alcoholism than men?
False; alcoholism is more prevalent in men
General idea of operant conditioning reinforcement...
It feels good and reduced my bad feelings --> Brain wants it again
Positive Reinforcement (in the context of drug use)
Drug induces euphoria and other pleasurable effects
Negative Reinforcement (in the context of drug use)
Using the drug reduces unpleasant feelings (e.g. anxiety)
Why does intoxication feel good?
Increased dopamine/glutamate on the Nucleus Accumbens (mostly GABA neurons)
The brain's "pleasure center"
The Nucleus Accumbens is primarily (95%) made of _______.
GABAnergic medium spiny neurons (MSN)
Ways the brains has developed tolerance to the drug (3)
1. Desensitization of a drug GPCR binding site
2. Other mechanisms of lowering the endogenous systems the drug mimics/activates
3. In withdrawal, these systems are starved of normal activity
Counteracting systems are _______.
(the brain and the body adapts to high drug levels by increasing the opposite system)
Withdrawal/negative affect involves ___, ___, and ___.
Diminished Nucleus Accumbens activity
______: Decreases dopamine of the pleasure center with chronic use
Add a "good" stimulus
Subtract a noxious stimulus
Add a noxious stimulus
Subtract a "good" stimulus
Drug use is to satisfy craving to have to do the drug. The reward and punishment do not matter. A motivation "wanting" attribute given to the brain to reward-predicting stimuli.
Protracted Abstinence Syndrome
Craving still exists after the drug is no longer associated with "feeling good"
The brain has learned the drug is essential for survival and persona.
Associates various "cues" that can trigger to seek the drug
dlPCF activity in craving a cigarette...
Low dlPFC= low motivation
High dlPFC= high motivation
OFC activity in craving a cigarette...
Involved with mood regulation in bipolar disorder's amygdala and possibly with nucleus accumbens
Anterior Cingulate Cortex activity in craving a cigarette...
Conflict/errors of craving
mPFC activity in craving a cigarette...
Long after drug use, the memory is strong. Does NOT fade away the desire
_______ in OCD --> similarly with the addict makes an obsession/compulsion to take the drug.
Theory that ______ inhibits craving actions (part of the brain)
Two consequences of thaimine deficiency in alcoholics:
1. Wernicke's encephalopathy
2. Korsakoff's Psychosis
Fetal alcohol syndrome and Crack babies have these facial features:
- Small head
- Low nasal bridge
- Small eye openings
- FLAT/SMOOTHED FACE
- Underdeveloped jaw
T/F: Alcohol binging during pregnancy is the biggest problem, not having a single glass of wine.
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