A general approach to gathering info and answering questions that minimizes errors and bias
which of the following is not a goal of psychology? Explanation, Description, Assumption, or Prediction
A psychologist who tries to help factory workers who have been diagnosed with sleep disorders is practicing....
A psychologist who analyzes observable behavior and studies conditioning and reinforcement
A psychologist who studies the effects that physical and chemical changes have on behavior
a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
A psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior
The branch of psychology that emphasizes the perception is more than the sum of its parts is....
The most well known name in the his of psychology. he was the pioneer in the field of psychology whose work continues to have great historic value. the inner struggle of the subconscious is the key to many of his theorie
Processed, stored, and used
Cognitivists, such as Jean Piaget, concern themselves with the way in which info is...
The ____ began studying human behavior in the fifth and sixth centuries B.C., and decided that humans were rational beings
A movement to minimize or prevent psychological disorders through changes in social systems and through community mental health programs.
a psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions
researches topics related to intelligence, memory, problem solving, and motivation with the goal of helping students learn more effectively
a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures
(Dr. Burgess) a physician who specializes in psychiatry and is certified in treating mental disorders. M.D or D.O
Psychologists who work in schools or businesses and assist people with the problems of everyday living are...
The interaction between physical and psychological health is studied by...
Psychologists who study the effects of natural disasters, overcrowding, and pollution on people are known as....
Term given for the process of cutting a circular hot in to the human skill in order to release "evil spirits"
Early psychologist who believed that the nerves were hollow tubes through which animal spirits followed
A process by which a psychologist can discern intelligence, moral character, etc. by touching the bumps on a person's head
A carrer path that would require you to attend medical school and then went on to practice psychology (They hold a M.D. or D.O. degree)
The name of the practice of giving a subject a word and then asking them to reply with the first word that comes to their mind
Psychological perspective that claims the focus of psychology should be on observable behavior
Believed you could gain complete understanding or behavior by studying and modifying the environment in which people operate. "Give me 10 infants... and i will turn them into anything that you want me to as long as i have complete control over their environment and experiences"
(Dr. Phil) an expert in psychology who either conducts research or works in an applied researcher or counseling area. Ph.D
Someone who has a master's degree in social work and has passed a licensing test in order to be a licensed clinical ___ Worker
Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response
Refers to an individuals sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, and other subjective experiences
4 year B.S or B.A degree typically in psychology or sociology
2 year masters degree
How do you become a social worker?
complete a 4 year college degree B.A or B.S
Attend 4 years of medical school
complete a 3 to 4 year residency
How do you become a psychiatrist?
Complete a 4 year degree is psychology (B.A Psychology)
Complete 4-5 year graduate program in psychology (Ph.D)
How do you become a Psychologist?
Advocates of this approach believed that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts over which the individual has little awareness or control
Study the unique characteristic of human. Believed that people naturally have the ability to control their lives and behavior
Infant's response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around the mouth
Specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned
Child's realization that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it
developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment
psychologist who researched the relationship of body contact and nourishment to attachment, using infant monkeys and artificial mothers
Democratic/Authoritative Parenting style
-teens participate in decisions. discussions and negotiation. parents explain reasons for decisions but retain veto power
A child who believes that the sun "Mr. Sun" is alive ans has human-like characteristics
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
Freud used this term to describe his theory that boy's fall in love with their mother and hate their father out of jealousy at a young age
Psychologist who believed that social approval is just as important as sexual and aggressive urges in humans and developed a theory of development based on this
Methods of research in psychology
1. Begin with a question
2. Decide which method of research fits best
3. Determine a representative sample
(Sample must accurately represent the group you are studying in order for your results to be valid. Represents the group or population that you are studying)
Observed the subject in its natural environment with as little disruption as possible and see subject in natural environment
world's leading expert on chimpanzees; has a big reserve in Africa where she lives with and studies chimps
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
+ Tons of info. - does not apply to general population. it only applies to that particular group
Positive and negative of Case studying
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
+ Most practical way to gather info on a large number of people. - limited responses
Positive and negative of a survey
a research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period (years)
+ cheap and quick way to collect data. - data contains different subjects so the data is not as valid or reliable
Positive and negative of Cross-sectional study
+ Allows the researcher to control the environment and decrease the possibility of external variables impacting your results. - Not always possible in psych because you cant always isolate variables
Positive and negative of an experiment
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group
the study of how children grow and change physically, intellectually, emotionally, socially and morally (Sigmund Freud)
Theory of Psychosexual development
All children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed. Since this energy has little use for children Freud believed that it drove development
(1st year) -Erotic pleasures are obtained through the mouth. this explains why babies put everything in their mouths
-Weaning causes frustration and conflict for the child
-This is the child's first experience with not getting what he wants
- Oral fixation comes from this
Who was the first person the develop a theory to which argued that children think differently than adults
(2nd Year) - Holding in or pushing out fieces gibing pleasure until the child learns social control trough toilet training
- children who struggle with this may become anal retentive, they must have structure and control in their lives
conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.
True of False: Both sexes are likely to marry mates with personality characteristics like their parents
(6-Adolescence) - sexual desires are pushed into background and children busy themselves with exploring the world and learning new skills
(Adult) - People get as much pleasure from giving pleasure as they do from receiving it (Sexual Maturity)
Criticisms of freuds theory
-stops at mid-teens
- most psychologist dont believe in penis envy, O/E complex, etc.
-Freud wanted to start a revolution in the way we viewed child development
Cognitive Psychologist who spent thousands of hours studying children
*was the biggest impact on devo. psychology
(Birth-2) Object permanence - the ability to remember things exist when they are hidden from view
-Develop motor control
-Grasping reflex present
-Rooting reflex present
(2-7) - Devo. of language, symbolic thinking, egocentric thinking. child uses symbols to represent objects and events
Concrete Operational Stage
(7-12) - Devo. conservation, master reversibility, think more logically
- Less egocentric thought
Formal Operational Stage
(12-Adult) - Devo. logical and abstract thinking
-Able to use deductive reasoning
*not everyone reaches this stage
Criticisms of Piagets theory
-Children are not consistent with performance. Suggests continuity rather than stages
-Underestimates children's ability to understand concepts
-Developed a theory about teenagers. This theory stated that parenting style has a major influence on child development
-resent all authority, rebel without a cause
-lack practice in negotiating
Results of Authoritarian Parenting style
Teens are confident of goals and values. likely to make own decisions. Child assumes responsibility gradually and identifies with parents who love and respect her
Results of Democratic/Authoritative Parenting style
Children feel unwanted. lack of self-worth. lack trust in own decisions
Results of Permissive/Laissez fair family
Parents are self-centered and/or un-committed to parenting (Drugs, alcohol/ mental illness)
Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development
recognized sexual and aggressive urges in children but argued that the need for social approval is just as important. He argued that all humans face several challenges or crisis as they age. the manner in which you resolve each crisis impacts your development as you age
Ceremonies in which an individual is admitted to new status or accepted into a new position
An industrialized society
Margaret Mead theorized that adolescence marked by storm and stress was a by-product of....
a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
Adolescents who seriously consider important issues but make no commitments to them
Adolescents who make firm commitments on issues bases on the suggestions of others
This is not a problem adolescents might develop as a result of immaturity and abstract though process
The identity category in which adolescents have considered many possible identities and freely committed themselves to occupations and other important life matters
Erik Erikson and James Marcia
Two researchers who believed that crisis is involved in adolescent identity development
Eating disorder characterized by compulsive overeating followed by self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse
Eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight that results in prolonged self-starvation and dramatic weight loss
Becoming independent of their families
One of the principles developmental tasks for adolescents is...
A mental representation of behaviors organized around how either a male or a female should think on behave
oversimplified generalization about the characteristics that belong to males and females
The ___ theory states that children acquire gender roles by interacting with their environment and thinking about those experiences
Daniel Levinson's Theory of Male Development
Identifies challenges that men have to face as they age. Levinson believed that development is an on going process that requires continual adjustment
Many theories did not focus on women. This need to happen. Many women experience similar things to men in Levinson's theory, but researchers also note major differences: child rearing, empty nest syndrome, menopause
A railroad foreman who worked on a vermont rail line. He suffered a traumatic brain injury and this sparked bio-psychology in america.
His entire personality changes as a result.
The nervous system
Your body's communication device. Electrical charges are sent though out your body to help you communicate messages, thoughts, movement, etc.
Central Nervous System
Made up of the brain and spinal chord. it controls automatic involuntary responses which are called reflexes
Control portions of your body that keep you alive. ex: heart beat, blood vessel dialation/constriction, etc.
Specialized cells that make up the nervous system. you have as many as 200 billion in your brain each one connects to thousands of others. range in size from 2 microns to 3 feet
Process of neurotransmitters being removed from synapse
1. Reuptake 2. Enzyme Deactivation 3. Autoreceptors
neurotransmitters bind to the receptor sites on the pre-synaptic neurons and are signaled to stop releasing
addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and more
In balances of neurotransmitters are responsible for/or associated with many mental illness such as...
The Endocrine System
A set of glands that secrete substance called hormones into your body. Ex: stimulate growth, and stimulate emotions and have a big impact on behavior
The Pituitary Gland
"Master gland" which is about the same size of a pea. is located next to the hypothalamus . Excretes many different hormones many of these impact other glands
can be over weight, can cause cretinism which results in mental retardation and stunted growth
Chemicals released by neurons, which determine the rate at which other neurons fire
Positron Emission Topography
Imaging technique used to see which brain areas are being activated while performing tasks
Part of the brain at the rear base of the skull that is involved in the basic processes of life
Substance that causes the liver to release stored sugar when the body requires extra energy
An altered state of consciousness characterized by certain types of brain activity. Monitored by an EEG. 4 stages of sleep
Rapid eye movement. A period of intense brain activity, vivid dreams and parlyzation of skeletal muscles
Unconscious Wish Fulfillment Theory
Dreams represent unconscious concerns, wishes, or desires - dreams have meaning
Activation - Synthesis Theory
Dreams have no meaning. Electrical stimuli trigger memories, feelings, sights, and images while you sleep. your brain processes these into "believable" story line
Dreams for Survival Theory
Dreams allow you to reprocess and reconsider info that is vital to our survival - very important in skeletal muscular tasks
Reverse Learning Theory
Dreams represent a "Mental House Cleaning" in which you discard unneeded info accumulated during the day
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
a drug, often smoked, whose effects include euphoria, impairment of judgment and concentration and occasionally hallucinations; rarely reported as addictive
A once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
An event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training
A learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus
a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning
The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
Form of learning in which a certain action is rewarded or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
signal Detection theory
Study of people's tendencies to make correct judgements in detecting the presence of stimuli
Smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected between two stimuli
The study of the relationship between sensory experiences and the physical stimuli that cause them is called
principle that the just noticeable diffference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations
Carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain, resulting in the sensation of sound
Brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold
Tendency to perceive certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting
Apparent movement of stationary objects relative to one another that occurs when the observer changes position
A type of schizophrenia that is dominated by delusions of persecution along with delusions of grandeur.
A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.
a schizophrenic disorder that is characterized by a mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria of any one type.
a schizophrenic disorder in which the person exhibits inappropriate affect, illogical thinking, and/or eccentric behavior but seems generally in touch with reality.
Sensors are most responsive to increase or decrease, or new in stimuli, they adapt over time
Signal Detection Theory
Holds that the detection of a stimulus depends on both the intensity of the stimulus and the physical and psychological state of the individual
True/False: Reinforcement is stronger, but takes longer to learn, punishment is easier, but less effective
Has been paired a primary reinforcer and through classical conditioning has acquired value and reinforcement. Examples include money, praise, status, and prestige
This occurs when the desired behavior is reinforced EVERY time it occurs. Subject learned the quickest with this method, but the effect is prone to quick extinction once stopped
Reinforcement is varied. It may come after 1 or 100 behaviors. The subject never knows
Results of Fixed Interval
High rate of behavior just prior to reward, and then no behavior right after. In time, the behavior picks up again (Exam Schedule in school)
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
When an unpleasant stimulus is added after a behavior and it results in a decrease of the previous behavior
When a pleasant Stimulus is added which increases the likelihood of the previous behavior being repeated
When an unpleasant stimulus is removed from the environment and it leads to an increase in the precious behavior
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Responses that are satisfying are more likely to be repeated. Those that are not satisfying are less likely to be repeated
Finding out the results of an action or performance. Greatly impacts speed and effectiveness of learning
Previous learned responses help you to learn a new skill (ex: a guitar player leaning to play the banjo)
Previous learned responses make it more difficult for you to learn a new skill (ex: driving on the left side of the road in other countries)
A form of practice in which you imagine yourself completing the desired task. Research has proven this to be 90% as effective as actual practice
Learning to Learn
Ex: Learning to extract info from a book is more important than the first book you learned to read
Occurs when a person experiences pain or discomfort regardless of how hard they try
an effect of modeling
Increases the chances that the subject will exhibit the same behavior (ex: everyone looks up, you look up)
an effect of modeling
obervational learning or imitation. the observer can watch a behavior and then reproduce it closely. was not able to do this before (ex: learning a new dance)
an effect of modeling
disinhibition: observer watches another subject engage in a "threatening" activity without being punished. makes them more likely to be able to do it.
A behavior modification system in which individuals set up their own rewards and punishments to change a behavior
A study of learning in which the focus is on how info is obtained, processed, and organized