An assumption bout behavior tested through scientific research
Having to do with the process of thinking and understanding
A complex explanation of phenomena based on findings from scientific research
A general approach to gathering info and answering questions that minimizes errors and bias
The study of behavior tested through scientific research
Animals and Humans
Psychology involves the study of behavior in...
which of the following is not a goal of psychology? Explanation, Description, Assumption, or Prediction
All psychologists conduct _____ studies
A psychologist who tries to help factory workers who have been diagnosed with sleep disorders is practicing....
A psychologist who analyzes observable behavior and studies conditioning and reinforcement
A psychologist who studies the effects that physical and chemical changes have on behavior
a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
A psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior
The branch of psychology that emphasizes the perception is more than the sum of its parts is....
The most well known name in the his of psychology. he was the pioneer in the field of psychology whose work continues to have great historic value. the inner struggle of the subconscious is the key to many of his theorie
Processed, stored, and used
Cognitivists, such as Jean Piaget, concern themselves with the way in which info is...
The ____ began studying human behavior in the fifth and sixth centuries B.C., and decided that humans were rational beings
A movement to minimize or prevent psychological disorders through changes in social systems and through community mental health programs.
a psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions
a psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances
researches topics related to intelligence, memory, problem solving, and motivation with the goal of helping students learn more effectively
a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures
(Dr. Burgess) a physician who specializes in psychiatry and is certified in treating mental disorders. M.D or D.O
Psychologists who work in schools or businesses and assist people with the problems of everyday living are...
The interaction between physical and psychological health is studied by...
Psychologists who study the effects of natural disasters, overcrowding, and pollution on people are known as....
Term given for the process of cutting a circular hot in to the human skill in order to release "evil spirits"
Early psychologist who believed that the nerves were hollow tubes through which animal spirits followed
A process by which a psychologist can discern intelligence, moral character, etc. by touching the bumps on a person's head
Franz Josef Gall
Psychologist who developed the process of Phrenology
Psychologist who developed the theory of the four humors
A carrer path that would require you to attend medical school and then went on to practice psychology (They hold a M.D. or D.O. degree)
Psychologist who opened the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig Germany in 1879
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
John B. Watson
Started behavioralism. "Little Albert" was his most famous subject
The name of the practice of giving a subject a word and then asking them to reply with the first word that comes to their mind
Psychological perspective that claims the focus of psychology should be on observable behavior
different age groups are tested at the same time
Believed you could gain complete understanding or behavior by studying and modifying the environment in which people operate. "Give me 10 infants... and i will turn them into anything that you want me to as long as i have complete control over their environment and experiences"
(Dr. Phil) an expert in psychology who either conducts research or works in an applied researcher or counseling area. Ph.D
Someone who has a master's degree in social work and has passed a licensing test in order to be a licensed clinical ___ Worker
Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response
Refers to the observable actions of a person and of an animal
Refers to an individuals sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, and other subjective experiences
having to do with an organism's physical processes
Psychology is part of this (history, law, anthropology, sociology, etc.
Data that is based on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses.
4 year B.S or B.A degree typically in psychology or sociology
2 year masters degree
How do you become a social worker?
clinics, schools, private practice or hospitals.
Where do social workers work?
complete a 4 year college degree B.A or B.S Attend 4 years of medical school complete a 3 to 4 year residency
How do you become a psychiatrist?
Complete a 4 year degree is psychology (B.A Psychology) Complete 4-5 year graduate program in psychology (Ph.D)
How do you become a Psychologist?
Advocates of this approach believed that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts over which the individual has little awareness or control
Try to change behavior in order to change or improve a person's health
Study the unique characteristic of human. Believed that people naturally have the ability to control their lives and behavior
infant's clinging response to a touch on the palm of his or her hand
Infant's response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around the mouth
Study of changes thats occur as an individual matures
Verbal utterances in which words are left out but the meaning is usually clear
Internally programmed growth of a child
Both heredity and environment
A person's behavior usually develops as a result of...
18 to 20 inches
At birth, the length of most infants is...
Young child's inability to understand another person's perspective
Specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned
Specific plan for knowing the world
Child's realization that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it
Principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed
The process of ___ involves fitting objects and experiences into one's schemas
developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment
psychologist who researched the relationship of body contact and nourishment to attachment, using infant monkeys and artificial mothers
process of learning the behavioral rules of one's culture
Process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks
Process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parent
children's play involving the assumption of adult roles
Authoritarian Parenting style
-Parent rule -Children have no right to question authority result
Democratic/Authoritative Parenting style
-teens participate in decisions. discussions and negotiation. parents explain reasons for decisions but retain veto power
A child can answer the question, "who is your sister's sister"
A child who believes that the sun "Mr. Sun" is alive ans has human-like characteristics
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
Freud used this term to describe his theory that boy's fall in love with their mother and hate their father out of jealousy at a young age
Psychologist who believed that social approval is just as important as sexual and aggressive urges in humans and developed a theory of development based on this
Psychologist who developed a theory of development of adult men
Word that is used to describe the study of death and dying
a small, exclusive group of people
Methods of research in psychology
1. Begin with a question 2. Decide which method of research fits best 3. Determine a representative sample (Sample must accurately represent the group you are studying in order for your results to be valid. Represents the group or population that you are studying)
Observed the subject in its natural environment with as little disruption as possible and see subject in natural environment
world's leading expert on chimpanzees; has a big reserve in Africa where she lives with and studies chimps
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
+ Tons of info. - does not apply to general population. it only applies to that particular group
Positive and negative of Case studying
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
+ Most practical way to gather info on a large number of people. - limited responses
Positive and negative of a survey
a research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period (years)
+ huge, reliable data. - time consuming, $
Positive and negative of Longitudinal Studies
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
+ cheap and quick way to collect data. - data contains different subjects so the data is not as valid or reliable
Positive and negative of Cross-sectional study
+ Allows the researcher to control the environment and decrease the possibility of external variables impacting your results. - Not always possible in psych because you cant always isolate variables
Positive and negative of an experiment
variable you change to see how it will affect the depentant varible.
The variable being watched to examine that impact of the independent variable
Subject exposed to the independent variable
Subjects not exposed to independent variable
The power of possible thinking can impact a study
Hypothesis for Placebo effect
Patients receiving experimental surgery will improve knee strength
Independent variable for Placebo effect
Dep. Variable for placebo effect
Control Group for Placebo effect
-no surgery -Just therapy 15% full recovery
Experimental Group for placebo effect
-Surgery -Therapy -90% full recovery
Placebo group for placebo effect
-Cut skin -Therapy -40% full recovery
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
when subjects do not know which experimental group they are in
when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group
the study of how children grow and change physically, intellectually, emotionally, socially and morally (Sigmund Freud)
Theory of Psychosexual development
All children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed. Since this energy has little use for children Freud believed that it drove development
(1st year) -Erotic pleasures are obtained through the mouth. this explains why babies put everything in their mouths -Weaning causes frustration and conflict for the child -This is the child's first experience with not getting what he wants - Oral fixation comes from this
Who was the first person the develop a theory to which argued that children think differently than adults
True or False: Freud worked with children
(2nd Year) - Holding in or pushing out fieces gibing pleasure until the child learns social control trough toilet training - children who struggle with this may become anal retentive, they must have structure and control in their lives
(3-5 years) - In this stage, Children discover their genitals
conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.
True of False: Both sexes are likely to marry mates with personality characteristics like their parents
(6-Adolescence) - sexual desires are pushed into background and children busy themselves with exploring the world and learning new skills
(Adult) - People get as much pleasure from giving pleasure as they do from receiving it (Sexual Maturity)
Criticisms of freuds theory
-stops at mid-teens - most psychologist dont believe in penis envy, O/E complex, etc. -Freud wanted to start a revolution in the way we viewed child development
Cognitive Psychologist who spent thousands of hours studying children *was the biggest impact on devo. psychology
Branch of psych that studies how people grow and change over their life span
(Birth-2) Object permanence - the ability to remember things exist when they are hidden from view -Develop motor control -Grasping reflex present -Rooting reflex present
(2-7) - Devo. of language, symbolic thinking, egocentric thinking. child uses symbols to represent objects and events
(2-4) -Animistic Thinking - Egocentrism
(4-7) - Inability to understand Conservation
The ability to order things from shortest to longest
Concrete Operational Stage
(7-12) - Devo. conservation, master reversibility, think more logically - Less egocentric thought
Formal Operational Stage
(12-Adult) - Devo. logical and abstract thinking -Able to use deductive reasoning *not everyone reaches this stage
Criticisms of Piagets theory
-Children are not consistent with performance. Suggests continuity rather than stages -Underestimates children's ability to understand concepts
-Developed a theory about teenagers. This theory stated that parenting style has a major influence on child development
-resent all authority, rebel without a cause -lack practice in negotiating
Results of Authoritarian Parenting style
Teens are confident of goals and values. likely to make own decisions. Child assumes responsibility gradually and identifies with parents who love and respect her
Results of Democratic/Authoritative Parenting style
Permissive/Laissez fair family
Parents make no rules or give up when challenged
Children feel unwanted. lack of self-worth. lack trust in own decisions
Results of Permissive/Laissez fair family
Parents are self-centered and/or un-committed to parenting (Drugs, alcohol/ mental illness)
aggressive, poor control, low self-esteem
Result of Uninvolved Parents
Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development
recognized sexual and aggressive urges in children but argued that the need for social approval is just as important. He argued that all humans face several challenges or crisis as they age. the manner in which you resolve each crisis impacts your development as you age
Period during which males achieve first ejaculation
First menstrual period
Ceremonies in which an individual is admitted to new status or accepted into a new position
Condition in which the growth or maturation of bodily parts is uneven
An industrialized society
Margaret Mead theorized that adolescence marked by storm and stress was a by-product of....
A rapid increase in height and weight
Just before puberty, children experience....
Are more self-confident
Boys who mature early...
a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are
Social Learning Theory
View of human development that emphasizes interaction
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
Adolescents who seriously consider important issues but make no commitments to them
Adolescents who make firm commitments on issues bases on the suggestions of others
during adolescents, ____ cognitive stage is typically reached
This is not a problem adolescents might develop as a result of immaturity and abstract though process
The identity category in which adolescents have considered many possible identities and freely committed themselves to occupations and other important life matters
Erik Erikson and James Marcia
Two researchers who believed that crisis is involved in adolescent identity development
Acting in accordance with some specified authority
Eating disorder characterized by compulsive overeating followed by self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse
Possible parental interpretation of an adolescent's unpredictable behavior
Eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight that results in prolonged self-starvation and dramatic weight loss
Fashion and music preferences
Peer groups tend to set the standards on such matters as...
Becoming independent of their families
One of the principles developmental tasks for adolescents is...
Rebelliousness, drug and alcohol use, withdrawal
Depressed teenagers exhibit behaviors such as
A flexible combination of traditional male and female roles
The sex group to which an individual biologically belongs
A mental representation of behaviors organized around how either a male or a female should think on behave
oversimplified generalization about the characteristics that belong to males and females
The ___ theory states that children acquire gender roles by interacting with their environment and thinking about those experiences
Daniel Levinson's Theory of Male Development
Identifies challenges that men have to face as they age. Levinson believed that development is an on going process that requires continual adjustment
Many theories did not focus on women. This need to happen. Many women experience similar things to men in Levinson's theory, but researchers also note major differences: child rearing, empty nest syndrome, menopause
A railroad foreman who worked on a vermont rail line. He suffered a traumatic brain injury and this sparked bio-psychology in america. His entire personality changes as a result.
The nervous system
Your body's communication device. Electrical charges are sent though out your body to help you communicate messages, thoughts, movement, etc.
Central Nervous System
Made up of the brain and spinal chord. it controls automatic involuntary responses which are called reflexes
Peripheral Nervous System
Branches out from the brain and the spinal chords to the extremities
Controls voluntary movement
Control portions of your body that keep you alive. ex: heart beat, blood vessel dialation/constriction, etc.
4 F's of the stress response
Fight, Flight, Faint, or Freeze
Turns your systems on. Prepares you for FFFF
Turns systems down. Calms you after FFFF
Specialized cells that make up the nervous system. you have as many as 200 billion in your brain each one connects to thousands of others. range in size from 2 microns to 3 feet
All or none law
Neurons will either fire or not fire, there is no partial discharge
When one neuron encourages the next neuron to fire
When one neuron tell the next neuron to stop firing
Process of neurotransmitters being removed from synapse