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Psych Midterm

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hypothesis
An assumption bout behavior tested through scientific research
Cognitive
Having to do with the process of thinking and understanding
Theory
A complex explanation of phenomena based on findings from scientific research
Scientific Method
A general approach to gathering info and answering questions that minimizes errors and bias
Psychology
The study of behavior tested through scientific research
Animals and Humans
Psychology involves the study of behavior in...
Assumption
which of the following is not a goal of psychology? Explanation, Description, Assumption, or Prediction
systematic
All psychologists conduct _____ studies
Applied Science
A psychologist who tries to help factory workers who have been diagnosed with sleep disorders is practicing....
Behaviorist
A psychologist who analyzes observable behavior and studies conditioning and reinforcement
Functionalist
A psychologist who studies the effects that physical and chemical changes have on behavior
structuralist
a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
Psychobiologist
a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
Psychoanalyst
A psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior
Gestalt Psychology
The branch of psychology that emphasizes the perception is more than the sum of its parts is....
Sigmund Freud
The most well known name in the his of psychology. he was the pioneer in the field of psychology whose work continues to have great historic value. the inner struggle of the subconscious is the key to many of his theorie
Processed, stored, and used
Cognitivists, such as Jean Piaget, concern themselves with the way in which info is...
Greeks
The ____ began studying human behavior in the fifth and sixth centuries B.C., and decided that humans were rational beings
Community psychology
A movement to minimize or prevent psychological disorders through changes in social systems and through community mental health programs.
Experimental Psychologist
a psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions
Clinical Psychologist
a psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances
Educational Psychologist
researches topics related to intelligence, memory, problem solving, and motivation with the goal of helping students learn more effectively
Developmental Psychologist
a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures
Psychiatrist
(Dr. Burgess) a physician who specializes in psychiatry and is certified in treating mental disorders. M.D or D.O
Counseling psychologists
Psychologists who work in schools or businesses and assist people with the problems of everyday living are...
Experimental Psychologists
The interaction between physical and psychological health is studied by...
Environmental Psychologists
Psychologists who study the effects of natural disasters, overcrowding, and pollution on people are known as....
Trephining
Term given for the process of cutting a circular hot in to the human skill in order to release "evil spirits"
Rene Descartes
Early psychologist who believed that the nerves were hollow tubes through which animal spirits followed
Phrenology
A process by which a psychologist can discern intelligence, moral character, etc. by touching the bumps on a person's head
Franz Josef Gall
Psychologist who developed the process of Phrenology
Hippocrates
Psychologist who developed the theory of the four humors
Psychiatrist
A carrer path that would require you to attend medical school and then went on to practice psychology (They hold a M.D. or D.O. degree)
Wihelm Wundt
Psychologist who opened the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig Germany in 1879
Introspection
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
John B. Watson
Started behavioralism. "Little Albert" was his most famous subject
Free Association
The name of the practice of giving a subject a word and then asking them to reply with the first word that comes to their mind
Behavioralism
Psychological perspective that claims the focus of psychology should be on observable behavior
Cross-Sectional
different age groups are tested at the same time
B.F Skinner
Believed you could gain complete understanding or behavior by studying and modifying the environment in which people operate. "Give me 10 infants... and i will turn them into anything that you want me to as long as i have complete control over their environment and experiences"
psychologist
(Dr. Phil) an expert in psychology who either conducts research or works in an applied researcher or counseling area. Ph.D
Social Worker
Someone who has a master's degree in social work and has passed a licensing test in order to be a licensed clinical ___ Worker
Skinner Box
Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response
Behavior
Refers to the observable actions of a person and of an animal
Mind
Refers to an individuals sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, and other subjective experiences
physiological
having to do with an organism's physical processes
Social Sciences
Psychology is part of this (history, law, anthropology, sociology, etc.
Empirical Data
Data that is based on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses.
4 year B.S or B.A degree typically in psychology or sociology

2 year masters degree
How do you become a social worker?
clinics, schools, private practice or hospitals.
Where do social workers work?
complete a 4 year college degree B.A or B.S
Attend 4 years of medical school
complete a 3 to 4 year residency
How do you become a psychiatrist?
Complete a 4 year degree is psychology (B.A Psychology)
Complete 4-5 year graduate program in psychology (Ph.D)
How do you become a Psychologist?
Psychoanalytic Approach
Advocates of this approach believed that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts over which the individual has little awareness or control
Modern Behaviorist
Try to change behavior in order to change or improve a person's health
Humanistic Approach
Study the unique characteristic of human. Believed that people naturally have the ability to control their lives and behavior
Grasping reflex
infant's clinging response to a touch on the palm of his or her hand
Rooting reflex
Infant's response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around the mouth
Developmental Psychology
Study of changes thats occur as an individual matures
Telegraphic Speech
Verbal utterances in which words are left out but the meaning is usually clear
Maturation
Internally programmed growth of a child
Both heredity and environment
A person's behavior usually develops as a result of...
18 to 20 inches
At birth, the length of most infants is...
Egocentric
Young child's inability to understand another person's perspective
Critical Period
Specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned
Schema
Specific plan for knowing the world
Object Performance
Child's realization that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it
Conservation
Principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed
Assimilation
The process of ___ involves fitting objects and experiences into one's schemas
Mary Ainsworth
developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment
Harry Harlow
psychologist who researched the relationship of body contact and nourishment to attachment, using infant monkeys and artificial mothers
Socialization
process of learning the behavioral rules of one's culture
Sublimation
Process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks
Identification
Process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parent
Role taking
children's play involving the assumption of adult roles
Authoritarian Parenting style
-Parent rule
-Children have no right to question authority result
Democratic/Authoritative Parenting style
-teens participate in decisions. discussions and negotiation. parents explain reasons for decisions but retain veto power
Reversibility
A child can answer the question, "who is your sister's sister"
Animistic Thinking
A child who believes that the sun "Mr. Sun" is alive ans has human-like characteristics
Development
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
Oedipal Complex
Freud used this term to describe his theory that boy's fall in love with their mother and hate their father out of jealousy at a young age
Erik Erikson
Psychologist who believed that social approval is just as important as sexual and aggressive urges in humans and developed a theory of development based on this
Daniel Levinson
Psychologist who developed a theory of development of adult men
Thanatology
Word that is used to describe the study of death and dying
Clique
a small, exclusive group of people
Methods of research in psychology
1. Begin with a question
2. Decide which method of research fits best
3. Determine a representative sample
(Sample must accurately represent the group you are studying in order for your results to be valid. Represents the group or population that you are studying)
Naturalistic Observation
Observed the subject in its natural environment with as little disruption as possible and see subject in natural environment
Jane Goodall
world's leading expert on chimpanzees; has a big reserve in Africa where she lives with and studies chimps
Case study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
+ Tons of info. - does not apply to general population. it only applies to that particular group
Positive and negative of Case studying
Survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
+ Most practical way to gather info on a large number of people. - limited responses
Positive and negative of a survey
Longitudinal Studies
a research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period (years)
+ huge, reliable data. - time consuming, $
Positive and negative of Longitudinal Studies
Cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
+ cheap and quick way to collect data. - data contains different subjects so the data is not as valid or reliable
Positive and negative of Cross-sectional study
+ Allows the researcher to control the environment and decrease the possibility of external variables impacting your results. - Not always possible in psych because you cant always isolate variables
Positive and negative of an experiment
Independent variables
variable you change to see how it will affect the depentant varible.
Dependent Variables
The variable being watched to examine that impact of the independent variable
Experimental Group
Subject exposed to the independent variable
Control Group
Subjects not exposed to independent variable
Placebo effect
The power of possible thinking can impact a study
Hypothesis for Placebo effect
Patients receiving experimental surgery will improve knee strength
Independent variable for Placebo effect
Surgery
Dep. Variable for placebo effect
Knee strength
Control Group for Placebo effect
-no surgery
-Just therapy 15% full recovery
Experimental Group for placebo effect
-Surgery
-Therapy
-90% full recovery
Placebo group for placebo effect
-Cut skin
-Therapy
-40% full recovery
Self-Fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
Single-Blind
when subjects do not know which experimental group they are in
Double-Blind
when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group
Child development
the study of how children grow and change physically, intellectually, emotionally, socially and morally (Sigmund Freud)
Theory of Psychosexual development
All children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed. Since this energy has little use for children Freud believed that it drove development
Oral Stage
(1st year) -Erotic pleasures are obtained through the mouth. this explains why babies put everything in their mouths
-Weaning causes frustration and conflict for the child
-This is the child's first experience with not getting what he wants
- Oral fixation comes from this
Sigmund Freud
Who was the first person the develop a theory to which argued that children think differently than adults
False
True or False: Freud worked with children
Anal Stage
(2nd Year) - Holding in or pushing out fieces gibing pleasure until the child learns social control trough toilet training
- children who struggle with this may become anal retentive, they must have structure and control in their lives
Phallic Stage
(3-5 years) - In this stage, Children discover their genitals
Electra Complex
conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
Penis envy
the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.
True
True of False: Both sexes are likely to marry mates with personality characteristics like their parents
Latency Stage
(6-Adolescence) - sexual desires are pushed into background and children busy themselves with exploring the world and learning new skills
Genital Stage
(Adult) - People get as much pleasure from giving pleasure as they do from receiving it (Sexual Maturity)
Criticisms of freuds theory
-stops at mid-teens
- most psychologist dont believe in penis envy, O/E complex, etc.
-Freud wanted to start a revolution in the way we viewed child development
Jean Piaget
Cognitive Psychologist who spent thousands of hours studying children
*was the biggest impact on devo. psychology
Development Psychology
Branch of psych that studies how people grow and change over their life span
Sensorimotor Stage
(Birth-2) Object permanence - the ability to remember things exist when they are hidden from view
-Develop motor control
-Grasping reflex present
-Rooting reflex present
Preoperational Stage
(2-7) - Devo. of language, symbolic thinking, egocentric thinking. child uses symbols to represent objects and events
Preconceptual Period
(2-4) -Animistic Thinking
- Egocentrism
Intuitive Period
(4-7) - Inability to understand Conservation
Seration
The ability to order things from shortest to longest
Concrete Operational Stage
(7-12) - Devo. conservation, master reversibility, think more logically
- Less egocentric thought
Formal Operational Stage
(12-Adult) - Devo. logical and abstract thinking
-Able to use deductive reasoning
*not everyone reaches this stage
Criticisms of Piagets theory
-Children are not consistent with performance. Suggests continuity rather than stages
-Underestimates children's ability to understand concepts
Diana Baumrind
-Developed a theory about teenagers. This theory stated that parenting style has a major influence on child development
-resent all authority, rebel without a cause
-lack practice in negotiating
Results of Authoritarian Parenting style
Teens are confident of goals and values. likely to make own decisions. Child assumes responsibility gradually and identifies with parents who love and respect her
Results of Democratic/Authoritative Parenting style
Permissive/Laissez fair family
Parents make no rules or give up when challenged
Children feel unwanted. lack of self-worth. lack trust in own decisions
Results of Permissive/Laissez fair family
Uninvolved Parents
Parents are self-centered and/or un-committed to parenting (Drugs, alcohol/ mental illness)
aggressive, poor control, low self-esteem
Result of Uninvolved Parents
Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development
recognized sexual and aggressive urges in children but argued that the need for social approval is just as important. He argued that all humans face several challenges or crisis as they age. the manner in which you resolve each crisis impacts your development as you age
Spermarche
Period during which males achieve first ejaculation
Menarche
First menstrual period
Puberty
Sexual maturation
Initiation rites
Ceremonies in which an individual is admitted to new status or accepted into a new position
Asynchrony
Condition in which the growth or maturation of bodily parts is uneven
An industrialized society
Margaret Mead theorized that adolescence marked by storm and stress was a by-product of....
A rapid increase in height and weight
Just before puberty, children experience....
Are more self-confident
Boys who mature early...
Identity Crisis
a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are
Social Learning Theory
View of human development that emphasizes interaction
Rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
Foreclosure Adolescents
Adolescents who seriously consider important issues but make no commitments to them
moratorium Adolescents
Adolescents who make firm commitments on issues bases on the suggestions of others
formal operations
during adolescents, ____ cognitive stage is typically reached
Vulnerability
This is not a problem adolescents might develop as a result of immaturity and abstract though process
Identity Achievement
The identity category in which adolescents have considered many possible identities and freely committed themselves to occupations and other important life matters
Erik Erikson and James Marcia
Two researchers who believed that crisis is involved in adolescent identity development
Conformity
Acting in accordance with some specified authority
Bulimia Nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by compulsive overeating followed by self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse
Adolescent rebellion
Possible parental interpretation of an adolescent's unpredictable behavior
Anorexia Nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight that results in prolonged self-starvation and dramatic weight loss
Fashion and music preferences
Peer groups tend to set the standards on such matters as...
Becoming independent of their families
One of the principles developmental tasks for adolescents is...
Rebelliousness, drug and alcohol use, withdrawal
Depressed teenagers exhibit behaviors such as
Androgynous
A flexible combination of traditional male and female roles
Gender Identity
The sex group to which an individual biologically belongs
Gender schema
A mental representation of behaviors organized around how either a male or a female should think on behave
Gender stereotype
oversimplified generalization about the characteristics that belong to males and females
Cognitive-developmental
The ___ theory states that children acquire gender roles by interacting with their environment and thinking about those experiences
Daniel Levinson's Theory of Male Development
Identifies challenges that men have to face as they age. Levinson believed that development is an on going process that requires continual adjustment
Female development
Many theories did not focus on women. This need to happen. Many women experience similar things to men in Levinson's theory, but researchers also note major differences: child rearing, empty nest syndrome, menopause
Phineas Gage
A railroad foreman who worked on a vermont rail line. He suffered a traumatic brain injury and this sparked bio-psychology in america.
His entire personality changes as a result.
The nervous system
Your body's communication device. Electrical charges are sent though out your body to help you communicate messages, thoughts, movement, etc.
Central Nervous System
Made up of the brain and spinal chord. it controls automatic involuntary responses which are called reflexes
Peripheral Nervous System
Branches out from the brain and the spinal chords to the extremities
Somatic Division
Controls voluntary movement
Automatic Division
Control portions of your body that keep you alive. ex: heart beat, blood vessel dialation/constriction, etc.
4 F's of the stress response
Fight, Flight, Faint, or Freeze
Sympathetic Division
Turns your systems on. Prepares you for FFFF
Parasympathetic Division
Turns systems down. Calms you after FFFF
Neurons
Specialized cells that make up the nervous system. you have as many as 200 billion in your brain each one connects to thousands of others. range in size from 2 microns to 3 feet
All or none law
Neurons will either fire or not fire, there is no partial discharge
Excitatory Messages
When one neuron encourages the next neuron to fire
Inhibitory Messages
When one neuron tell the next neuron to stop firing
Process of neurotransmitters being removed from synapse
1. Reuptake 2. Enzyme Deactivation 3. Autoreceptors
Reuptake
Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the neuron
Enzyme Deactivation
Specific enzymes break down specific neurotransmitters in the synapse.
Auto receptors
neurotransmitters bind to the receptor sites on the pre-synaptic neurons and are signaled to stop releasing
addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and more
In balances of neurotransmitters are responsible for/or associated with many mental illness such as...
The Endocrine System
A set of glands that secrete substance called hormones into your body. Ex: stimulate growth, and stimulate emotions and have a big impact on behavior
The Pituitary Gland
"Master gland" which is about the same size of a pea. is located next to the hypothalamus . Excretes many different hormones many of these impact other glands
Thyroid Gland
Located in the neck. Releases thyroxin which controls your metabolism.
Hypothyroidism
can be over weight, can cause cretinism which results in mental retardation and stunted growth
Hyperthyroidism
Excitability, Weight loss, Inability to sleep
Adrenal Glands
Release adrenaline and noradrena line. located above kidneys
Synapse
The gap that occurs between individual nerve cells
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals released by neurons, which determine the rate at which other neurons fire
Somatic Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that controls voluntary activities
Forebrain
Part of the brain that covers the brain's central core
Electroencephalograph
Machine used to record the electrical activity of large portions of the brain
Positron Emission Topography
Imaging technique used to see which brain areas are being activated while performing tasks
Hindbrain
Part of the brain at the rear base of the skull that is involved in the basic processes of life
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Imaging technique used to study brain structure and activity
Midbrain
Part of the brain that integrates sensory info and relays it upward
Corpus Callosum
A band of fibers called the ___ connects the cerebral hemispheres
Ductless Gland
Releases hormones directly into the bloodstream
Cortical steroid
Substance that causes the liver to release stored sugar when the body requires extra energy
Fraternal Twins
Result from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm
Genes
The basic building blocks of the body's physical structure
Heredity
Genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring
Identical Twins
Result from one fertilized egg
Nature vs. Nurture
The debate over the role of inherited factors and environmental conditions
Conscious
A state of awareness including a person's Ideas, Emotions, thoughts and Perceptions
Sleep
An altered state of consciousness characterized by certain types of brain activity. Monitored by an EEG. 4 stages of sleep
REM
Rapid eye movement. A period of intense brain activity, vivid dreams and parlyzation of skeletal muscles
True
True or false: The amount of time spent in REM increases the longer you sleep
Nightmares
Occur during REM sleep
Night Terrors
Occur outside of REM sleep both are vivid, realistic
Occurs in non - rem sleep
Sleep walking
Unconscious Wish Fulfillment Theory
Dreams represent unconscious concerns, wishes, or desires - dreams have meaning
Activation - Synthesis Theory
Dreams have no meaning. Electrical stimuli trigger memories, feelings, sights, and images while you sleep. your brain processes these into "believable" story line
Dreams for Survival Theory
Dreams allow you to reprocess and reconsider info that is vital to our survival - very important in skeletal muscular tasks
Reverse Learning Theory
Dreams represent a "Mental House Cleaning" in which you discard unneeded info accumulated during the day
Hypnosis
a state that resembles sleep but that is induced by suggestion
Stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Narcotics
specific drugs that are obtainable only by prescription and are used to relieve pain
Hallucinogens
psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
Marijuana
a drug, often smoked, whose effects include euphoria, impairment of judgment and concentration and occasionally hallucinations; rarely reported as addictive
Narcolepsy
Condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day
Sleep Apnea
Sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while asleep
Insomnia
Failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day
Sigmund Freud
Believed dreams had hidden meanings
REM sleep
Often your face and fingers twitch and your eyes move rapidly during...
Posthypnotic Suggestion
influences behavior of person after hypnosis
Hypnotic analgesia
reduction of pain reported by patients who have undergone hypnosis
Meditation
Focusing of attention to clear one's mind and produce relaxation
Biofeedback
Process of learning to control bodily states with the help of specialized machines
LSD
Psychedelic drug that produces distortions of perception and thought
Hallucinations
Perceptions that have no direct external cause
LSD
Panic reactions are the most common unpleasant side effect of ____ use
Conditioned Stimulus
A once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus
An event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training
Unconditioned Response
An organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus
Conditioned Response
The learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
Neutral Stimulus
A stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
Classical Conditioning
A learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus
Ivan Pavlov
a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning
Generalization
Responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
Discrimination
The ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
Extinction
The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning
Form of learning in which a certain action is rewarded or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
Sensation
Occurs when a stimulus activates a receptor
Absolute Threshold
Weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect half the time
signal Detection theory
Study of people's tendencies to make correct judgements in detecting the presence of stimuli
Perception
Organization of sensory info into meaningful experiences
Difference Threshold
Smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected between two stimuli
Psychophysics
The study of the relationship between sensory experiences and the physical stimuli that cause them is called
Webers' Law
principle that the just noticeable diffference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations
Binocular Fusion
Process of combining the images received from the two eyes into a single image
Lens
Flexible, transparent structure in the eye that changes its shape to focus light on the retina
retina
Innermost coating of the back of the eye, containing the light-sensitive receptor cells
olfactory nerve
Carries small impulses from the nose to the brain
Auditory nerve
Carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain, resulting in the sensation of sound
Illusions
Perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli
Gestalt
experience that comes from organizing bits and pieces of info into meaningful wholes
Subliminal messages
Brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold
Constancy
Tendency to perceive certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting
Motion Parallax
Apparent movement of stationary objects relative to one another that occurs when the observer changes position
4
how many stages of non REM sleep are there?
4
Which stage of non REM sleep is the deepest stage of sleep
Rapid Eye movement
What does REM stand for?
5
What stage of sleep are you in when the major skeletal muscles are "paralyzed"
EEG
What device is used to monitor and study stages of sleep?
Paranoid Schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia that is dominated by delusions of persecution along with delusions of grandeur.
Catatonic Schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
a schizophrenic disorder that is characterized by a mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria of any one type.
Residual Schizophrenia
a schizophrenic disorder in which the person exhibits inappropriate affect, illogical thinking, and/or eccentric behavior but seems generally in touch with reality.
Sensory Adaptation
Sensors are most responsive to increase or decrease, or new in stimuli, they adapt over time
Signal Detection Theory
Holds that the detection of a stimulus depends on both the intensity of the stimulus and the physical and psychological state of the individual
True
True/False: Reinforcement is stronger, but takes longer to learn, punishment is easier, but less effective
Primary Reinforcement
Satisfies a basic biological need such as hunger, thirst, and sleep
Secondary Reinforcement
Has been paired a primary reinforcer and through classical conditioning has acquired value and reinforcement. Examples include money, praise, status, and prestige
Continuous Reinforcement
This occurs when the desired behavior is reinforced EVERY time it occurs. Subject learned the quickest with this method, but the effect is prone to quick extinction once stopped
Fixed Ratio
Reinforcement after a set number of behavior (every 4 for example)
Result of Fixed Ratio
Subject works hard, pauses briefly after reward (ex: piece work)
Variable Ratio
Reinforcement is varied. It may come after 1 or 100 behaviors. The subject never knows
Results of Variable Ratio
Frequent behaviors at a high and steady rate (ex: slot machines)
Fixed Interval
Reward the first behavior after a set amount of time
Results of Fixed Interval
High rate of behavior just prior to reward, and then no behavior right after. In time, the behavior picks up again (Exam Schedule in school)
Variable Interval
Reinforce behavior after varying amounts of time
Results of Variable Interval
Slow steady approach to behavior
Partial Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
Punishment
When an unpleasant stimulus is added after a behavior and it results in a decrease of the previous behavior
Positive Reinforcement
When a pleasant Stimulus is added which increases the likelihood of the previous behavior being repeated
Negative Reinforcement
When an unpleasant stimulus is removed from the environment and it leads to an increase in the precious behavior
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Responses that are satisfying are more likely to be repeated. Those that are not satisfying are less likely to be repeated
Feedback
Finding out the results of an action or performance. Greatly impacts speed and effectiveness of learning
Transfer
When previously learned responses impacts your ability to master a new task
Positive Transfer
Previous learned responses help you to learn a new skill (ex: a guitar player leaning to play the banjo)
Negative Transfer
Previous learned responses make it more difficult for you to learn a new skill (ex: driving on the left side of the road in other countries)
Practice
Practicing a skill, helps you acquire it
Visualization
A form of practice in which you imagine yourself completing the desired task. Research has proven this to be 90% as effective as actual practice
Learning to Learn
Ex: Learning to extract info from a book is more important than the first book you learned to read
Learned Laziness
Occurs when a person or subject receives a reward without effort
Learned Helplessness
Occurs when a person experiences pain or discomfort regardless of how hard they try
Shaping
Process in which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones
Modeling
Showing the subject an example of the desired behavior
an effect of modeling
Increases the chances that the subject will exhibit the same behavior (ex: everyone looks up, you look up)
an effect of modeling
obervational learning or imitation. the observer can watch a behavior and then reproduce it closely. was not able to do this before (ex: learning a new dance)
an effect of modeling
disinhibition: observer watches another subject engage in a "threatening" activity without being punished. makes them more likely to be able to do it.
Learning
Changes in behavior that result from experience
Cognitive Map
A mental picture of a place
Token Economies
A program that gives points for good grades
Behavior modification
A plan to help you quit biting you nails
Self-Control Program
A behavior modification system in which individuals set up their own rewards and punishments to change a behavior
Cognitive Learning
A study of learning in which the focus is on how info is obtained, processed, and organized
Stability
A belief that helplessness will be permanent