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introduction to Carbohydrate
Terms in this set (19)
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule consisting of adenine, a sugar, and three phosphate groups that can be hydrolyzed to release energy. Universally used by cells to store and transfer energy.
Any enzyme that can break down starch by catalyzing hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages between the glucose residues.
Any of a class of molecules that contain a carbonyl group, several hydroxyl groups, and several to many carbon-hydrogen bonds. See monosaccharide and polysaccharide.
A protective layer located outside the plasma membrane and usually composed of polysaccharides. Found in algae, plants, bacteria, fungi, and some other groups.
A structural polysaccharide composed of b-glucose monomers joined by b-1,4-glycosidic linkages. Found in the cell wall of algae, plants, bacteria, fungi, and some other groups.
A structural polysaccharide composed of N-acetylglucosamine monomers joined end to end by b-1,4-glycosidic linkages. Found in cell walls of fungi and many algae, and in external skeletons of insects and crustaceans.
A carbohydrate consisting of two monosaccharides (sugar residues) linked together.
A highly branched storage polysaccharide composed of α-glucose monomers joined by 1,4- and 1,6-glycosidic linkages. The major form of stored carbohydrate in animals.
Any protein with one or more covalently bonded carbohydrate groups.
A monosaccharide (simple sugar) containing six carbon atoms.
A small carbohydrate, such as glucose, that has the molecular formula (CH2O)n and cannot be hydrolyzed to form any smaller carbohydrates. Also called simple sugar. Compare with disaccharide and polysaccharide.
A monosaccharide (simple sugar) containing five carbon atoms.
A complex structural polysaccharide found in bacterial cell walls.
phosphorylase (fos 4 ah laze)
An enzyme that breaks down glycogen by catalyzing hydrolysis of the a-glycosidic linkages between the glucose residues.
The complex biological process that converts the energy of light into chemical energy stored in glucose and other organic molecules. Occurs in plants, algae, and some bacteria.
A linear or branched polymer consisting of many monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Carbohydrate polymers with relatively few residues often are called oligosaccharides.
A mixture of two storage polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin, both formed from a-glucose monomers. Amylopectin is branched, and amylose is unbranched. The major form of stored carbohydrate in plants.
A monosaccharide (simple sugar) containing three carbon atoms.
alpha - amylase
is an enzyme required to break the bonds within starch.
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