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Psychology 101 - CH 2
Terms in this set (79)
The nervous system is defined as ________.
a complex network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body
The two main divisions of the nervous system are the ________ and ________.
peripheral nervous system; central nervous system
The part of the neuron whose name literally means "branch" is ________.
What term is used to describe a specialized cell that makes up the nervous system and receives and sends messages within that system?
The branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called ________.
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell alive and functioning is the ________.
________ receive messages from other neurons and ________ send messages to other neurons.
Your teacher asks you to describe the sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during neural conduction. Which of the following sequences will you offer?
dendrites, soma, axon, synaptic knob
Glial cells make up ________ of the brain's cells.
What are two roles of glial cells?
acting as insulation and providing structure to surrounding neurons
What is the function of myelin?
to speed up the neural impulse
A group of axons bundled together coated in myelin that travels together through the body is called ________.
When a cell is "at rest," it is in a state called the ________.
What do we call the state of a neuron when it is not firing a neural impulse?
During action potential, the electrical charge inside the neuron is ________ the electrical charge outside the neuron.
positive compared to
When a neuron fires, it fires in a(n) ________ fashion as there is no such thing as "partial" firing.
What is the term used to describe the branches located at the end of the axon?
What is the term used to describe the rounded areas on the ends of the axon terminals?
A chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, has an effect on the next cell is called
The fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell is called the ________.
________ are holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands that are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters.
Which structure is like a locked door that only certain neurotransmitter keys can unlock?
________ neurotransmitters make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons, whereas ________ neurotransmitters make it less likely that a neuron will send its message.
Reuptake is ________.
a process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles
The brain and spinal cord are two components of the ________.
central nervous system
The central nervous system consists of ________.
the brain and spinal cord
Which of the following is a long bundle of neurons that functions as a carrier of messages from the body to the brain and from the brain to the body and is responsible for certain reflexes?
Which of the following are the three basic types of neurons?
interneurons, sensory neurons, motor neurons
LaKeisha stepped on a piece of glass and quickly pulled her foot away from that sharp object. Which of the following are responsible for sending a message to the muscles in LaKeisha's foot, resulting in her pulling her foot away from the piece of glass?
Mary put her hand on a hot stove. Which neuron is responsible for sending a pain message up her spinal column, where it would then enter into the main area of the cord?
Why do many reflexes, such as pulling your hand away from a hot iron, happen so quickly?
The message involved does not have to go all the way to the brain.
The peripheral nervous system consists of ________.
all the nerve cells that are not in the brain and spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system consists of the ________ and the ________ nervous systems.
Voluntary muscles are controlled by the ________ nervous system.
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that is made up of all nerves carrying messages from the senses to the central nervous system and all nerves carrying messages from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles is called the ________.
somatic nervous system
In the peripheral nervous system, ________ carry messages from special sense receptors in the skin, muscles, and other internal and external sense organs to the spinal cord.
sensory pathway neurons
Involuntary muscles are controlled by the ________ nervous system.
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that consists of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands is called the ________ nervous system.
When you see someone you have a crush on and your heart pounds, your hands get sweaty, and your cheeks feel hot, your ________ is/are active.
autonomic nervous system
Which component of the nervous system mobilizes the body in times of stress?
As Molly is walking across campus, a car swerves toward her. Her heart races and sweat breaks out as she jumps out of harm's way. This mobilization of energy is due to the action of Molly's ________.
sympathetic nervous system
Malcolm is studying alone in his room late at night when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heartbeat increases significantly and his breathing becomes shallow. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house and decides to investigate. When he gets downstairs he discovers his cat has knocked over a plant stand. His body begins to relax and return to normal. Which part of his nervous system is responsible for returning Malcolm to a normal state?
parasympathetic nervous system
Sometimes in order to study parts of an animal's brain, researchers may deliberately damage a part of the brain. They accomplish this by placing into the brain a thin insulated wire through which they send an electrical current that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire. This technique is called ________.
Insertion into the brain of a thin insulated wire through which is sent an electrical current that stimulates the brain cells at the tip of the wire is called ________.
ESB - Electrical Stimulation of the Brain
Small metal disks are pasted onto Miranda's scalp and they are connected by wire to a machine that translates the electrical energy from her brain into wavy lines on a moving piece of paper. From this description, it is evident that Miranda's brain is being studied through the use of ________.
an electroencephalogram - EEG
Ali is in the hospital about to undergo a brain-imaging process that involves taking many X-rays from different angles aided by the use of a computer. What type of imaging technique is being used?
computed tomography (CT)
Rashad is in the hospital and is about to undergo a brain-imaging process that involves placing him inside a magnetic field so that a computer can create three-dimensional images of his brain. What procedure is he about to undergo?
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Which of the following is a brain-imaging method in which radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain?
positron emission tomography (PET)
Libby's physician refers her to a medical center in order to have the biochemical activity in her brain analyzed. She is given an injection of a radioactive glucose-like substance and then is told to lie down with her head in a scanner. The technique being used is ________.
positron emission tomography
An auto accident rendered Chris's nervous system unable to send messages for him to breathe, so he is on a respirator. Which brain structure was damaged in the accident?
The point at which the nerves from the left side of the body cross over into the right side of the brain, and vice versa, is the ________.
Which of the following is responsible for the ability to selectively attend to certain kinds of information in one's surroundings and become alert to changes?
Alice is typing her term paper in the computer lab. Although a class is going on just a few feet away, she does not seem to notice. Which part of the brain allows Alice to focus on her typing and ignore the distractions that surround her?
Which of the following coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement?
Tracey has been unable to participate in her gymnastics class and is very uncoordinated since she was involved in an accident where she suffered a head injury. As a result of the accident, she was likely to have suffered damage to her ________.
Which of the following is a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation?
What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?
Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, sleeping, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the ________.
If you have a problem remembering things that happened a year ago, doctors might check for damage to the ________ area of the brain.
Stan has been extremely afraid of cats since he was scratched as a 5-year-old. Whenever he sees a cat, he remembers the time he was scratched across his face and starts to feel afraid. If a cat comes towards him, he often runs away immediately as he is afraid of being scratched again. Stan's behaviors and recollection of this trauma is a result of the ________ in the limbic system.
Jerry loves the smell of the grass after it rains. This is a result of his ________ which have received signals from neurons in his sinus cavity.
The cortex is divided into two sections referred to as ________.
The thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the ________.
After a head injury a person reports that she is unable to see, although her eyes are uninjured. A doctor would suspect an injury in the ________ lobe.
The part of the occipital lobe that is responsible for receiving visual information from the eyes is called the ________.
primary visual cortex
The section of the brain responsible for interpreting the visual information in the primary visual cortex is called the ________.
visual association cortex
Which of the following regions contains the somatosensory cortex?
John has decided to start to learn how to wrestle. His first day at practice, a seasoned wrestler slams the back of his head to the mat. John was shaken and reported to the trainer that he "saw stars" after he hit his head. As a result of "seeing stars," John's ________ was temporarily affected as a result of the slam.
Which of the following regions contains the auditory cortex?
Which of the following lobes are involved in planning, memory, and personality?
Warren is having trouble deciding what he wants to eat for breakfast. Which lobe of his brain is especially active as he makes his selection?
After suffering a brain injury by falling from a ladder, Zack's wife continues to tell the doctor that his personality has changed. He used to be fun loving and care-free, but he is now more critical and yells at his children for seemingly little reason. Zack is likely to have suffered damage to the ________ part of his cortex.
Incoming sensory messages are made sense of in ________.
the association areas
The area of the frontal lobe that is devoted to the production of fluent speech is ________ area.
The area at the back of the temporal lobe that is crucial in the ability to listen, process, and understand what others are saying is ________ area.
Robert's mother is usually meticulous in her presentation. When picking her up for a family dinner, he noticed that her make-up was only applied to the right side of her face. Her hair was also brushed on the right side, but on the left it was matted and uncombed. He immediately took her to the hospital after she was unaware of any problems. She was diagnosed with ________ which is evidenced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere.
Researcher Roger Sperry won a nobel prize for his research on Epilepsy. Sperry cut through the ________ which joins the two hemispheres of the brain.
Which endocrine gland controls all of the other endocrine glands?
The hormone released by the pineal gland that reduces body temperature and prepares you for sleep is ________.
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Psychology 101- CH 1
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