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Pope Leo III proclaimed Charlemagne to be Emperor of the Romans because Charlemagne had

crushed a rebellion in Rome.

Part of a vassal's obligation under his feudal contract was to

serve in the military.

Marriage in noble society often included fierce negotiations over

the land in the woman's dowry.


a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord


A poet or musician who traveled around and entertained people with songs about chivalry and courtly love.


King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy


person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry

St. Francis of Assisi

Founder of the Franciscans


an estate granted to a vassal by his lord

papal supremacy

authority over all secular rulers


a trainee in the guild system


a document that set out the rights and privileges of a town


a salaried worker in the guild system

when the ownership of a manor was granted to a new lord, the serfs

remained on the land to serve the new lord

To achieve salvation, medieval Christians believed they must

receive the sacraments

Under Benedictine Rule, monks and nuns took vows of

obedience, poverty, and chastity

What crop restored fertility to the soil in the three-field system of rotating crops?


Newcomers to a medieval city often settled in the fields outside the city walls because

the city was overcrowded within the city walls.

What was a purpose of the missi dominici that Charlemagne sent throughout his kingdom?

They administered the law.

What important step did King Clovis take in ruling his conquered lands in that late 400s?

He converted to Christianity, the religion of the people of Gaul

Starting in the late 700s, which group attacked Western Europe from the sea and broke the last threads of unity in Charlemagne's empire?


Feudalism developed as a way for medieval societies to

protect themselves

A vassal owed his first loyalty to his

liege lord

Chivalry was

code of conduct for knights

In the manor system, the peasants had to

stay on the land for life

In the later Middle Ages, the Church

withdrew many rights that nuns had enjoyed

What was the result of the church reforms of Pope Gregory VII in 1073?

Only the church could appoint Church officials such as bishops

The claim of papal supremacy held that

the pope had authority over all knights and emperors

The new middle class in medieval society included


As a response to overcrowding, residents if medieval cities built

taller houses and shops

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