Terms in this set (81)

• Etiology: may be injured via 4 different mechanisms
o LACERATION: usually produced by combined dislocation & fx (jagged edges cut nerve roots or spinal cord & cause varying degrees of paralysis below the injury site)
o HEMORRHAGE: develops from all vertebral fractures & most dislocations, also strains and sprains. Hemorrhage within cord itself may cause damage (okay in muscles or within arachnoid space)
o CONTUSION: may result from sudden displacement of a vertebra that compresses the cord and then returns to its normal position (edematous swelling, resulting in degrees of temporary/permanent damage)
o CERVICAL CORD NEUROPRAXIA: transient paralysis followed by ability to move limbs freely and no other symptoms other than a sore neck; caused by cervical spine stenosis
o SPINAL CORD SHOCK: usually occurs with severe trauma to spinal cord; immediate loss of function below level of lesion, limbs are flaccid (later spasticity). Total loss of deep tendon reflexes, with later
development of hyperreflexia
• Signs/Symptoms: complete cord lesions at or above C3 will impair respiration & result in death; lesions below C4
will allow for some return of nerve root function
o Incomplete lesions can result in:
-Central cord syndrome: caused by hemorrhage or ischemia in central portion of cord,
• results in complete quadriplegia with nonspecific sensory loss, sexual & bowel-bladder dysfunction
-Brown-Sequard syndrome: caused by injury to one side of spinal cord
• results in loss of motor function, touch, vibration, and position sense on one side of the body, and loss of pain and temperature sensation on other side
-Anterior cord syndrome: caused by an injury to the anterior 2/3 of the cord
• results in loss of motor function and pain & temperature sensation; normal sexual and bladder-bowel function
-Posterior cord syndrome: caused by injury to posterior cord (rare)
• Motor function is completely intact
• Management: handle with extreme caution; minimize additional trauma to cord if paralysis present
• Spondylolysis: degeneration of the vertebrae and a defect in the pars interarticularis of the articular processes of
the vertebrae; defect occurs as a stress fx, more common among boys, congenital origins. May produce no symptoms unless disk herniation occurs or sudden trauma occurs (hyperextension). Sport movements that characteristically hyperextend the spine are most likely to cause this condition
• Spondylolisthesis: commonly begins unilaterally; if it extends bilaterally, may be some slippage of one vertebra on the one below it; considered to be a complication of spondylolysis that often results in hypermobility of a vertebral segment (step deformity).
o Highest incidence with L5 slipping on S1; incidence of slippage is higher in girls
o Will usually have a lumbar hyperlordosis postural impairment
o Direct blow or sudden twist or chronic low back strain may cause defective vertebra to displace forward
• Signs/Symptoms: mild to moderate aching or stiffness with increased pain after physical activity. Complaint that low back fatigues easily. Athlete feels the need to change positions frequently to reduce pain. At extreme ranges held for 30 seconds, an aching pain develops. Feels weak when straightening from forward bending. Segmental hypermobility may be present (and possibly accompanying neurological signs)
• Management: bracing and bed rest to reduce pain; major focus should be directed toward exercises that control of
stabilize the hypermobile segment; trunk strengthening, dynamic core stabilization