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Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis

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photosynthesis
the chemical process of using light to make food for plants
photons
packets of energy that light comes in
chemical equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H20 + LIGHT (PHOTONS) = C6H12O6 + 6O2
chloroplast
organelle of photosynthesis
waxy layer
prevents the leaf from drying out
epidermis
filled with chloroplast
vein
sugar and water travel through it
spongy layer
store gases when the stoma is closed
stoma
controls gases and fluids that enter and leave
guard cells
control what enters and leaves the stoma
outer membrane
separates the organelle from the cytoplasm
inner membrane
folded into many layers some of which fuse together to form thylakoids
thylakoid
disk shaped structue that is the site of photosynthesis
grana
a stack of thylakoids that resemble a stack of pancakes
stroma
gel like substance that surrounds the thylakoid
photosystem
a group of pigments working together to collect light
ATP
adenosine triphosphate, energy molecule of the cell
carbon fixation
converting carbon in a gas (CO2) to carbon in a solid (C6H12O6)
pigments
use light energy to partially break down their own chemical structure, they become energized
chlorophyll a
the most important pigment, all other pigments pass their energy to this at the start of light dependent reactions
photosystem ii
happens first
photosystem i
happens second
photolysis
splitting water with light
electron transport chain
the site of a series of oxidation (losing an electron) and reduction (gaining an electron) reactions on the thylakoid membrane
NADP
special hydrogen acceptor that picks up loose hydrogen molecules
light dependent reations
need sunlight, photosystem
ATP and NADPH
results of light dependent reactions
light independent reactions
doesn't need sunlight, calvin cycle
produces 1/2 molecule of glucose, uses 9 ATP for 1/2 molecule of glucose, uses 6 NADPH for 1/2 molecule of glucose
results of light independent reations
equation for cell respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2 +ATP
autotrophs (producers)
make their food through photosynthesis
heterotrophs (consumers)
ingest their food
glycolysis
glycogen is broken down into glucose and generates 4 ATP and 2 NADH molecules, occurs with or without the presence of oxygen and in the cytoplasm
krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
occurs in matrix, CO2, ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced
electron transport chain
generates 32 ATP molecules
alcohol fermentation
used by yeast and occurs in the absence of oxygen, produces ethanol and CO2
lactic acid fermentation
used by animals and occurs in the absence of oxygen, productes lactic acid and 2 ATP molecules
cellular respiration
process that breaks down glucose to release energy (ATP) for work
aerobic respiration
occurs in the presence of oxygen and in the matrix of the mitochondria
anaerobic repiration (fermentation)
occurs in the absence of oxygen