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the chemical process of using light to make food for plants


packets of energy that light comes in

chemical equation for photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H20 + LIGHT (PHOTONS) = C6H12O6 + 6O2


organelle of photosynthesis

waxy layer

prevents the leaf from drying out


filled with chloroplast


sugar and water travel through it

spongy layer

store gases when the stoma is closed


controls gases and fluids that enter and leave

guard cells

control what enters and leaves the stoma

outer membrane

separates the organelle from the cytoplasm

inner membrane

folded into many layers some of which fuse together to form thylakoids


disk shaped structue that is the site of photosynthesis


a stack of thylakoids that resemble a stack of pancakes


gel like substance that surrounds the thylakoid


a group of pigments working together to collect light


adenosine triphosphate, energy molecule of the cell

carbon fixation

converting carbon in a gas (CO2) to carbon in a solid (C6H12O6)


use light energy to partially break down their own chemical structure, they become energized

chlorophyll a

the most important pigment, all other pigments pass their energy to this at the start of light dependent reactions

photosystem ii

happens first

photosystem i

happens second


splitting water with light

electron transport chain

the site of a series of oxidation (losing an electron) and reduction (gaining an electron) reactions on the thylakoid membrane


special hydrogen acceptor that picks up loose hydrogen molecules

light dependent reations

need sunlight, photosystem


results of light dependent reactions

light independent reactions

doesn't need sunlight, calvin cycle

produces 1/2 molecule of glucose, uses 9 ATP for 1/2 molecule of glucose, uses 6 NADPH for 1/2 molecule of glucose

results of light independent reations

equation for cell respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2 +ATP

autotrophs (producers)

make their food through photosynthesis

heterotrophs (consumers)

ingest their food


glycogen is broken down into glucose and generates 4 ATP and 2 NADH molecules, occurs with or without the presence of oxygen and in the cytoplasm

krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)

occurs in matrix, CO2, ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced

electron transport chain

generates 32 ATP molecules

alcohol fermentation

used by yeast and occurs in the absence of oxygen, produces ethanol and CO2

lactic acid fermentation

used by animals and occurs in the absence of oxygen, productes lactic acid and 2 ATP molecules

cellular respiration

process that breaks down glucose to release energy (ATP) for work

aerobic respiration

occurs in the presence of oxygen and in the matrix of the mitochondria

anaerobic repiration (fermentation)

occurs in the absence of oxygen

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