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91 terms

apush ch.29

STUDY
PLAY
Levittown
utilized mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in suburban NY to relieve postwar housing shortage; became symbol of movement to suburbs; conformity of houses; diverse communities; home for lower-middle class families
flight to suburbs
most significant social trend of postwar era; massive shift in population from the central city
baby boom
booming birth rate post-WWII; idealized the family
affluence
replaced poverty and hunger of Great Depression; obsession with material goods; conformity of suburbs
anxiety
danger of nuclear war; US/RUS rivalry; second Red Scare; McCarthyism; loyalty oaths and book burning
postwar boom
nation witnessed period of unparalleled economic growth; demand for consumer goods; steady industrial expansion; heavy govt spending
postwar boom -> factors`
1) consumer society, buyers 2) Cold War, govt spending
Marshall Plan and foreign aid prog.
financed heavy export trade
Korean War
helped overturn brief recession as defense spending stimulate war industries
baby boom and suburbia
great stimulants to consumer goods industries: appliances, automobiles; electronics, etc.
postwar boom -> effects
positive: Sunbelt benefited from growth of aircraft and electronics industries, GNP grew to $440 billion, workers labored less than 40hrs/wk, highest standard of living; negative: older manufac. regions sufferred, steal industry fell behind, agric. prices remained low, unemployment
Great Neck and Richmond Heights
enabled Jews and blacks to take part in suburbs
White Christian
what most suburbs were
automobile
what life in all suburban communities depended on; necessity spurred production
drive-in culture
highways and expressways to/from work; buses to/from school; shopping centers
Southdale Shopping Center
first enclosed air conditioned mall
home
focus for activities and aspirations
postwar housing shortage
created demand for new homes in suburbs
togetherness
code word of 1950s
suburbs -> negative
de-emphasized extended family, discouraged feminism, women idealized as housewife
consumerism
dominant social theme of 1950s; abundance of creature comforts and leisure time; but left many dissatisfied
organized religion
flourished in 1950s, rise in church attendance in new communities
Norman Vincent Peale
popular religious writer; positive gospel
neo-orthodoxy
emerged in Protestant seminaries; ideas of Reinhold Biebuhr
Assemblies of God
radical forms of fundamentalism spread
schools
provided immediate problem for growing suburban communities; overwhelmed resources; limited help from fed. govt
critics of progressive education
called for sweeping educational reform; stressed traditional academic subjects
college
# of young people receiving college education increased
television
where largest advances were made; boomed in 1950s replacing radio and magazines; advertising and commercials; quiz shows, soap operas, comedies, etc.
Reginald Rose, Rod Serling, Paddy Chayefsky
playwrights wrote notable dramas for TV
Charles Van Doren
Columbia Univ professor given answers in advance to Twenty-one; big quiz shows dropped after controversy
John Keats
wrote The Crack in the Picture Window; described endless row of tract houses, identical boxes, Drones, lost individuality
Richard Gordon, Katherine Gordon, Max Gunther
wrote The Split-level Trap; concerned about psychological toll of suburban life; labeled new lifestyle 'Disturbia'
William Whyte
wrote The Organization Man; most sweeping indictment of suburbia; based on suburb study; change from old Protestant ethic to stifling conformity
David Reismen
most influential social critic; wrote The Lonely Crowd; intellectual commentary about suburbia
C. Wright Mills
more caustic commentator on American society; described new middle class in books; corporations were the villains; assembly lines were dehumanizing
beats
most eloquent expression of disenchantment with consumer culture; literary groups rebelled against materialistic society of 1950s
Jack Kerouac
wrote On the Road; set the tone for beat movement
beatniks
what middle class termed beat generation; dropouts from society; disapproval from mainstream America; nonconformists; demonstrated style of social protest
main beatnik figures
Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti
abstract expressionism
artistic counterpart of beats social protest; style emphasized individuality and freedom from constraints of realistic art; main figures: Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko
Pollock
act of creating painting was important as art itself
Rothko
pioneered color field painting: style in which enormous areas of color lack distinct structure to create mood
reform
failed to flourish in postwar years; cry for change replaced by prosperous affluence
Fair Deal
Truman's liberal legislative agenda: stressed New Deal goals, farm programs, Social Security, minimum wages, repeal Taft-Hartley; main reform measures: 1) medical insurance for all Americans 2) established FEPC 3) fed. aid to education; but defeated in Congress
Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)
opened up employment opportunities for African Americans
American Medical Association
branded health insurance plan as socialized medicine; lobbied against it
southern senators
threatened filibusters against FEPC proposal
expanding Social Security
Fair Deal's only success
conservative coalition
Southern Democrats and Northern Republicans combined to defeat any effort to extend govt regulation onto healthcare and civil rights
moderation
keynote of Eisenhower presidency; no commitment to social change or economic reform; fiscal conservative and balanced budget; no plans to dismantle New Deal
Modern Republicanism
Eisenhower: liberal towards the people but conservative about spending money; balanced budget without destroying existing social programs
George Humphrey
Eisenhower's secretary of treasury; policy of fiscal stringency
Charles Wilson
Eisenhower's secretary of defense; kept Pentagon budget under control
Sherman Adams
Eisenhower's chief of staff; handled congressional relations
Election of 1954
Republican losses weakened Eisenhower's relations with Congress
Lydon Johnson
Senate Majority Leader whom Eisenhower relied on for legislative action
Sam Rayburn
Speaker of the House whom Eisenhower relied on for legislative action
Department of Health, Education, andWelfare
Eisenhower consolidated administration of welfare programs
Oveta Culp Hobby
first woman to hold cabinet post in Republican administration; headed new department
Highway Act
1956 one significant legislation achievement of Eisenhower; Congress approved funds for 41,000 mile interstate highway system; benefited trucking, automobiles, organized labors, farmers, highway officials
highway trust fund
raised by taxes on fuel, tires, and new cars and trucks
interstate highway system
profound influence on American life; stimulated economy, shortened travel; nation's dependence on automobiles intensified; metropolitan growth patterns
African Americans
benefited economically from WWII; still disadvantaged, segregated, and discriminated; rising expectations postwar
Truman
first president to attempt to alter racial discrimination in US; succeeded in adding civil rights to the agenda; strengthened civil rights division of Justice Department
To Secure These Rights
Truman appointed presidential commission on civil rights which recommended reinstatement of FEPC, establishment of permanent civil rights commission, and denial of fed. aid to segregated schools; blocked by southern resistance in Congress
strong civil rights plank
issue in 1948 Democratic platform led to walkout of southern delegations and separate Dixiecrats
LA, Cleveland, Chicago
African American vote in these key cities ensured Democratic victory in their respective states
permanent FEPC and anti-lynching
civil rights legislation included in Truman's Fair Deal but blocked by southern opposition
armed forces
Truman ordered desegregation; took effect during Korean War
desegregation of schools
primary target of civil rights advocates; NAACP concentrated on universities
Thurgood Marshall
led NAACP lawyers to challenge Plessy v. Ferguson and segregation of public schools
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court decision upheld "separate but equal"; shaped Jim Crow laws
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 Supreme Court decision desegregated public schools; but slow to take effect and lack of presidential support
Southern Manifesto
101 representatives and senators signed in 1956 denouncing the Brown decision; founded ways to evade Court's ruling
pupil placement laws
laws enabled local officials to assign individual students to schools on basis of scholastic aptitude
Orval Faubus
Arkansas governor called national guard to prevent integration of Little Rock Central High
Little Rock Nine
9 African American students escorted by armed guard in integrated high school
Civil Rights Act
1957 first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction; created permanent commission for civil rights
intimidation, unfair tests
used in the South to deny African American suffrage
Rosa Parks
refused to give up her seat to white person at local bus in Montgomery, Alabama
Baton Rouge
1953 black church leaders mounded weeklong boycott on city's bus system; modified traditional segregated seating rules
Martin Luther King
eloquent spokesman and charismatic leader of new civil rights movement; Atlanta preacher led Montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery bus boycott
boycotted buses in Montgomery, Alabama after Rosa Park's arrest; called for end to segregated seating; ended when Supreme Court ruled in favor of African Americans
Southern Christina Leadership Conference
founded by MLK; directed the crusade against segregation
Prayer Pilgrimage
on third anniversary of Brown decision; stirred crowds with demand for right to vote
passive resistance
MLK's strategy of nonviolent protest
JoAnn Robinson
paved the way in Montgomery with Woman's Political Caucus
other civil rights figures
Bayard Rustin, Ella Baker
Greensboro, North Carolina
4 African American students held a "sit-in" at diner and refused to move from counter
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
student demonstrators led sit-ins and succeeded in desegregating public facilities