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An island chain once called the Spice Islands.

Osei Tutu

He united his people by claiming that they shared spiritual bonds.

Dutch East India Company

It was formed by a group of wealthy merchants, and had full sovereign powers.

Ferdinand Magellan

Who led the expedition that became the first to circumnavigate the Earth?


What coastal city of East Africa was an important trade center?

Prince Henry

Who led the way in sponsoring exploration for Portugal?

Affonso I

What ruler of Kongo tried to halt the slave trade in his lands?

Cape of Good Hope

The southern tip of Africa became known as the ________________ because rounding it gave sailors a direct route to Asia.


The voyage to Calicut by Vasco da Gama soon led to the creation of a vast trading empire for what country?

Spain and Portugal

The Line of Demarcation divided world trade and exploration rights between what two countries?


In the 1400s, Europeans searched for new trade routes to obtain valuable ____ that came mainly from the Moluccas.


Dutch farmers who settled around Cape Town were known as ____.


The first Europeans to challenge Portuguese domination of Asian trade were the ______.


Large quantities of American silver flowed into the economies of East Asia through what important Spanish trading center?


When the first Europeans arrived in the 1500s, the Japanese responded by _____ trade with the West.


After the Japanese, and later the _____, invaded Korea, the Koreans responded by excluding foreigners frm their nation.


British and French armies fought for power in India with the help of Indian troops known as ____.

Bartholomeu Dias.

Portuguese explorer ______ sought a trade route to Asia in 1460, by rounding the southern tip of Africa


In the mid-1600s, the Netherlands captured Malacca from the _____ and developed a monopoly on trade in the Spice Islands.

West Indies

The islands that Christopher Columbus explored in his voyage in 1492, later became known as what?

Afonso de Albuquerqe

In the early 1500s, _________ burned coastal towns and destroyed Arab fleets, in order to establish Portuguese outposts in India.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

In 1513, Spanish adventurer ______ reached the Pacific Ocean by traveling overland through Panama.

Cape Town

The settlement of _____ was significant because it was the first permanent European settlement in Africa.


Europeans usually acquired African captives from ____ traders.


To conquer the Aztec empire, Hernan Cortes formed _______ with conquered people who hated the Aztecs

Middle Passage

The trade route that transported African slaves to the Americas was the _____________.


Pirates who operated with the approval of European governments were _______________.


The Aztec emperor

Jacques Cartier

Who claimed much of present-day eastern Canada for France?

Hernan Cortes

What explorer fought and subdued the Aztecs?


People who take financial risk to make profits are __________.


An economic policy based on a nation exporting more goods than it imports.


Those who ruled Spain's colonies in the name of the Spanish monarchs were the _____________.


A system used to force Native Americans to labor under brutal conditions.


When he encountered the ____ people in the West Indies, Christopher Columbus claimed their land for the Spanish king.

Francisco Pizarro

The conquistador who added the lands of the present-day countries of Peru, Ecuador, and Chile to the Spanish empire was _____.


In order to protect local industries from foreign competition, ____ increased the price of imported goods.


At the top of Spanish colonial society were the _____.

gold, silver

Widespread inflation struck Europe in the mid-1500s due to the increasing amounts of ____ from the Americas.


Through the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, Portugal claimed its empire of ___________.

Triangular Trade Route

The first leg of the _______ brought European goods to Africa.

harsh winters

What kept many French from settling in New France?

Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Maryland

What three English colonies were mainly set up as havens for persecuted religious groups?


The economic system of ______ encourages private ownership of most businesses.


When the Aztec emperor first heard about the arrival of Spanish explorers, he sent them gifts because he thought they might have been __________.

New Laws of the Indies

The ______________ in 1542 forbade enslavement and abuse of Native Americans.

Council of the Indies

The Spanish king maintained strict control over his empire through the _____ in Spain.

wheat and grapes

Name two products that were brought to the Americas from Europe.


American (native) born descendants of Spanish settlers.


As a result of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Britain gained ____ and all the French lands east of the Mississippi.


Spain established ____ trading laws for its colonies.


The _____ Compact set out guidelines for governing Plymouth.

price revolution

The period in European history in the late 1500s when rising inflation rose rapidly is known as the ___________.


Joint stock companies allowed early European capitalists to raise large amounts of _______.


In their effort to gain control of the Inca, the Spanish captured the Inca ruler ___________.

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