Neo-Freudian; proposed the idea of the inferiority complex (based off of his childhood experiences)
Studied attachment differences by observing mother-infant pairs over a 6 mo. time period; found that secure infants have good bonds with mothers and the reverse is also true.
After meeting with Freud, he developed his theory on traits (trait perspective); he was less concerned with explaining individual traits and more concerned with describing them.
Discovered REM sleep accidentally; testing his EEG machine by placing electrodes on his son while he slept.
Atkinson, (Richard) & (Richard) Shiffrin
Proposed the classic three-stage processing model of memory (sensory memory to short-term memory to long-term memory).
Binet, (Alfred) & (Théodore) Simon
Assumed that all children follow the same path of intellectual development but that some develop more rapidly; came up with the formula for mental age and created an intelligence test used for French school children.
Cannon, (Walter) & (Philip) Bard
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion; the idea that the body's response and the feeling of emotion are experienced SIMULTANEOUSLY.
Argued (against Skinner) that our environment plays a bigger role in our language development; he believed that language occurs naturally given adequate nurture.
Was to the study of memory what Pavlov was to the study of conditioning; used himself to test memory by learning 3-consonant combinations; his findings were that the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning.
Studied psychosocial development; stages include infancy, toddlerhood, preschooler, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood; each stage is accompanied by a particular issue that must be resolved.
Eysenck, (Hans & Sybil)
Describe personality using two dimensions (stable v. unstable and extrovert v. introvert).
Psychoanalysis (his theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques); used free-association to delve into his patients
Developed the "visual cliff" experiment; showed that depth perception cues are innate.
Studied gender differences; believes females differ from males both in being less concerned with viewing themselves as separate individuals and in being more concerned with "making connections" .
Harlow, (Harry & Margaret)
Performed the attachment studies on monkeys; found that monkey's preferred the non- nourishing cloth monkey to the nourishing wire monkey.
Suggested the divided-consciousness theory for hypnosis; studies show that a hypnotic trance includes a "hidden observer" suggesting that there is some subconscious control during hypnosis
Hubel, (David) & (Torsten) Wiesel
Nobel prize winners that demonstrated that the visual cortex has feature detector neurons that receive information and respond to a scene's specific features—to particular edges, lines, angles, and movements.
Isolated what he felt were 10 basic emotions, most of which are present in infancy; others have argued that there are more, but he believes those other emotions are a combination of the 10 he's identified.
Studied the development of moral reasoning; stages include preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.
Kosslyn, (Stephen) & Olivier (Koenig)
Theory on consciousness; suggest that brain events are to consciousness what a guitar
Wrote the book "On Death and Dying" where she describes the five stages of dying; those stages are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.
Lange, (William) & (Carl) James
James-Lange theory of emotion; the idea that your body first responds to an event AND THEN you feel the emotion.
Did the "teacher" test (administering electric shock for wrong answers) to test conformity and the power of an authority figure.
Müller-Lyer illusion; helps to explain our ability to perceive depth in our 3-D world.
Developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT); a series of ambiguous pictures designed to depict the inner self.
Olds, (James) & (Peter) Milner
Discovered a part of the hypothalamus that provides a pleasurable reward; accidentally discovered when trying to test the reticular formations of rats by placing electrodes on this region.
Peterson, (Lloyd & Margaret)
Studied short-term memory; tested individuals by having them remember 3-consonant groups and prevent rehearsal by having them count backwards from 100 in groups of 3; their findings were that without active rehearsal, short term memories have a short and limited life.
Studied cognitive development in children; stages include sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
A reformer on the brutal treatment of mental patients; insisted madness was not a demon possession but a sickness of the mind caused by severe stress and inhumane conditions.
Humanistic perspective; believed in the idea of unconditional positive regard; used client-centered therapy and stressed genuiness, acceptance, and empathy; referred to his patients as "clients".
Russell, (James) & (David) Watson & (Auke) Tellegen
Describe emotion as two-dimensional (low arousal v. high arousal and pleasant v. unpleasant).
Schacter, (Stanley) & (Jerome) Singer
Schacter's two-factor theory of emotion; the idea that the body responds simultaneously with a cognitive label and THEN we feel the emotion.
Did the learned helplessness experiment with dogs; showed the external locus effect in animals (generalized to depression with humans).
Sherrington, (Sir Charles)
British physiologist that inferred there must be a brief interruption in the transmission of neural impulses, thus discovering synapses.
Known for his work with operant conditioning; developed the operant chamber, also known as the Skinner box.
Studied intelligence; believed that there was a general intelligence or g factor; he believed that those who scored high in one factor of intelligence would tend to score high on other factors.
First to propose "split-brain" surgery to help epileptic patients... but did so on animals, not humans.
Wore a radical pair of glasses that flipped right & left, up and down, for 8 days; tested perceptual adaptation and found that his brain adjusted to the glasses and he could function normally by the 8th day.
An opponent of Spearman; did an experiment to try to discredit the idea of a general intelligence or g factor, but his results actually helped to strengthen Spearman
Vogel, (Philip) & (Joseph) Bogen
Two neurosurgeons; first to cut a corpus callosum of a human patient in order to reduce/eliminate epileptic seizures; the outcome... it worked!
Watson, (John B.)
Viewed psychology as an objective science and urged his colleagues to discard reference to inner thoughts, feelings, and motives; got many of his ideas from Pavlov
Noted that regardless of their magnitude, two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion (not amount) for their difference to be perceptible; difference threshold or Weber's law.
An immigrant who was considered "feeble-minded" according to the Stanford-Binet; created the most widely used intelligence test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS); also created the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).
Whorf, (Benjamin Lee)
Whorf's hypothesis (linguistic determinism); the idea that people think differently in different languages.
Noticed that we unconsciously shape auditory patterns (ie. tick-tock sound of a clock).
Young, (Thomas) & (Hermann von) Helmholtz
Young-Helmholtz tri-chromatic theory; they knew that any color could be created by combining the light waves of three primary colors—red, green, & blue—so they inferred that the eye must have three types of color receptors, one for each primary color of light.