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25 terms

B + T's Near East Final

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Hyksos
People who had moved from the Syrio-Palestine area down into Egypt.
Ahhiyawa
The Greeks, or, more specifically, the Achaeans. Encountered the Near East on the western shore of Anatolia.
Hurrians
Northern Mesopotamia. Possibly from Caucasia. Probably not centaurs.
Habiru
Syro-Palestinian. Semi-nomadic social outcasts, term means "robber/vagabond," Idrimi hung out with them while he was wandering near Canaan.
Gasga
Area in northern Anatolia near Black Sea. Portrayed as wild and aggressive tribesmen attacking Hittite cities, taking them out of gov't control.
Hattic/Hattians
Original occupants of Anatolia, Hittitie territory. NOT HITTITE ANCESTORS. Never had written language - only spoke Hattic. Eventually merged with/were replaced by Hittites as they moved in.
Sea Peoples
Possibly Libyans, according to Ramesses III: "Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen, Weshesh"
Kassites
Babylonian region. Eventually became rulers of Babylon. Instated Akkadian dating system.
Aramaeans
Semi-nomadic people in Syria, became important militarily and politically later. Raided Assyria's ****.
Peleset/Philistines
Settled/took over fertile crescent (up to the Egyptian border) area after Sea Peoples ***ed *** up.
Shikalayu
Term used by the Hittites to describe the Sea Peoples' ethnicity.
Chaldeans
Tribal organization, settled along the Euphrates (Mesopotamia) and in the south. Took political power from the Kassites eventually.
Cimmerians
Maurading nomads that raided Babylonia's **** from somewhere north. Also eventually overran Phrygia.
Lydians
Became major power in west Anatolia when Phyrgians were weakened by Assyrians. invented coinage
Phrygians
Assyria's main opponent in Anatolia. Rich as **** - King Midas.
Mushku
A name that references King Midas, and thus probably Phygrians
Scythians
Nothern nomadic group that generally roamed around ***ing *** up throughout the entire Near East. Dominated Medes, constantly fighting Assyria/Anatolia.
Armenians
Replaced the Urartians by the 6th century BCE, making the region part of the Persian empire.
Ammonites/Ammon
East of the river Jordan, above Moab. Contributed some troops to fight Shalmaneser III when he crossed the Euphrates.
Medes
Zagros mountains and eastward. Pastoral, no written history. Sack Nineveh with Babylonians.
Persians
Lived in highlands of Anshan.
Luwian
Language related to Hittite, using Hittite hieroglyphic script.
Neo-Hittites
Southern Anatolia/Northwestern Syria. Used same Hittite hieroglyphs. Rulers tended to claim descendence from old Hittite state. Controlled east-west trade routes and mining areas, thus $$$.
Phoenicians
Centered in Canaan region. Rich as ****. Maritime trading culture.
Nubians
South of Egypt. Gold mines. Took turns controlling Egypt with Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal for a few years around 665.