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the use of direct, often confrontational action, such as a demonstration or strike in opposition to support a cause

affirmative action

a policy that attempts to address past discrimination against various groups by improving employment and educational opportunities

arms race

a competition to develop and manufacture more and more powerful weapons

baby boom

a large increase in the number of babies born in proportion to the size of the population

black panther party

organization formed in CA during the late 60's to inform blacks of their constitutional rights and point out racism. They created a nationalo newspaper, free breakfast programs for children, and used phrases such as "Black is beautiful" to give blacks a sense of pride and power


a form of protest consisting in the refusal to have dealings with a person, business, or organization


an economic system based on private ownership (by individuals and not the government) of farms and businessess. US has this.

civil disobedience

refusal to obey laws in an effort to change government policy or laws. Civil disobedience involves passive resistance or other nonviolent means.

civil rights

the rights that the US Consitution entitiles all people as citizens, especially equal treatment under the law

cold war

the golbal struggle for power and influence between the US and Soviet Union that followed WWII until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The struggle was called the Cold War because it did not actually lead to direct armed conflict between the superpowers


an economic system based on the idea that farms and businesses should be owned in common by the workers who do the labor. THis was used in Soviet Union. Communists do not believe that capitalism is a good idea.


wanting to get new material things. This means people want to buy lots of things including the newest and greatest gagets, fashion, etc.


a way of life that runs counter to (against) society's traditional culture


form of government ruled by the people. In a democracy, citizen's elect representatives to make and carry out the laws. US has this.


a public meeting or march to protest or make demands


to stop segregation


people who are actively concerned with protecting the environment


people who are actively concerned with acheiving political, and economic equality for women

freedom rides

bus rides that tested the enforcement of desegregation in interstate transportation


blending of all people as equal; the opposite of segregation

Jim Crow Laws

laws that were designed to enforce racial segregation and maintain white supremacy in the South after the Civil War. For example, blacks had seperate waiting rooms, schools, and drinking fountains. Intermarriages between blacks and whites were against the law

Ku Klux Klan

a group of people who believe in white supremacy (thinking whites are superior) and also harass Jews and Catholics. THe Klan first came on the scene after the Civil War when some white people were afraid of changes because blacks were freed from slavery and slavery was outlawed.

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